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Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

PSYA01 Chapter 2: The Ways and Means of Psychology -the scientific method permits us to discover the nature and causes of behaviour The Scientific Method of Psychology -scientific method a set of rules that dictate the general procedure a scientist must follow in his research -these rules are based on logic and common sense + devised by philosophers who were attempting to determine how we could understand reality -psychologists conduct 3 major types of scientific research which occur in a progressive sequence N 1) Naturalistic observation the observation of the behaviour of people or other animals in their natural environments; provide the foundations of the biological and social sciences N Clinical observation the observation of t he behaviour of people who are undergoing a diagnosis or treatment for a psychological condition N Least formal types set by few rules N 2) Correlational studies observed in nature but involves more formal measurement of environmental events41L3L;L:,O85K8L.,O,384.L,O.K,7,.907L89L.8,3419K0L7-0K,;L4:7 N The examination of relations between two or more measurements N 3) Experiments a study in which the researcher changes the value of an independent variable and observes whether this manipulation affects the value of the dependent variable N Only experiments can positively identify the casual relations among events -the scientific method involves 5 steps: 1. Identify the problem and formulate hypothetical cause-and-effect relations among variables -involves finding variables and describing the relations among them 2. Design the experiment -manipulation of independent variables and the observation of dependent variables -each variable must be operationally defined and the independent variable must be controlled 3. Perform the experiment 4. Evaluate the hypothesis by examining data from the study -involves mathematical procedures used to determine whether an observed effect is statistically significant 5. Communicate the results Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research Hypothesis -a statement designed to be tested by an experiment, that expresses a cause-and-effect relationship between two or more events Theories -a set of statements that describes and explains known facts, proposes relations among variables, and make new predictions -elaborate form of hypothesis -many psychologists are directed at marking a particular theory stronger Naturalistic and Clinical Observations as Sources of Hypotheses and Theories -naturalists are people who observe animals in their natural environment disturbing them as little as possible -3,9:7,OL89L.4-807;,9L43890,.K:8K4Z94.,90J47L]0,320,8:709K0.KLO7038-0K,;L4:7 www.notesolution.com
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