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PsychologyCh1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Summer

Description
CHAPTER ONE Case = Clive Wearing Psychology is a relatively new discipline it began in Germany (1920) was an expert in Psychology is science that focuses on discovering behaviour and explains brain infection he lost his memory. He feels its causes. Psychology = psukhe (breath/soul) & logos (word/reason) Greek as though he just psycho (mind) & logy (science)  science of the mind woke up from a deep In order to explain behaviour one must describe and discover the causes of sleep. Although he the behaviour. has no memory he Causal events  events that cause other events to occur still hugs his wife whenever he sees her and can sing Fields of psychology flawlessly. Research based fields Physiological Physiological basis of behaviour Learning, memory, sensory, psychology emotion, motivation … Comparative Studies behaviour of a variety of organisms Mating, courtship, psychology in attempt to understand the adaptive and predation, parental, defense functional significance of the behaviours in … relation to evolution. Behaviour Events with good effects are analysis Environments effect on behaviour repeated those with negative effects are avoided Behaviour Studies the role of genetics in behaviour Inherited by parents Genetics Cognitive Studies the mental processes and complex Perception, attention, psychology behaviour learning, memory, problem solving … Cognitive Discovers the brain mechanisms neuroscience responsible for cognitive function Developmental Study of physical, cognitive, emotional and psychology social development as a function of age and experience Social Study of the effects people have on one psychology another Personality Study of individual differences in psychology temperament and patterns of behaviour Evolutionary Views behaviours in terms of an adaptive psychology advantage that through the process of evolution Cross-cultural Effects of culture on behaviour psychology Clinical Investigation and treatment of abnormal psychology behaviour and mental illness 1 Applied psychology Clinical neuropsychologists Identify and treat behaviours caused by disorders or injury of the nervous system Health psychologists Promote behaviours that prevent illness and maintains health School psychologists Deals with behavioural issues of students Consumer psychologists Helps marketing Community psychologists Works for the social system and improves structure Organizational psychologists Increases the effectiveness of organizations Engineering psychologists Improves machines used by people Forensic psychologists Studies human behaviour related to legal systems Psychology was “created” by philosophy (father) and biology (mother) Definition once again – psychology is the science of behaviour  can be explained by events that cause them. Earlier it was thought that anything that moved or grew independently had a spirit. For example, if a rock fell they would assume that the rock fell to the floor because it wanted to be apart of the ground on the other hand fog stayed in the air because it wanted to. These entities were thought to have a motive force for their actions this is known as animism. Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) is the father of modern philosophy and biological traditions. He believed that the world was a mechanical entity that, having once been set in motion by God and runs its course without interference. Animal’s behaviours were controlled by natural causes. Therefore the body is thought to be a complex machine (hydraulics). Reactions don’t require the mind (when you touch a hot stove you automatically remove your hand, you don’t think about it) Mind was not considered to be a part of the natural world. Dualism – philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matter The mind controls the body however the body, using sense organs, supplies the mind with information about the environment. Rene Descartes believed the pineal body was responsible for this interaction. Model – simple system that works on a known principle and it is able to do at least some of the things that a more complex system can do. Model of the human body was controlled by a non-mechanical mind. Empiricism – truth by experimentation and observation Rationalism – truth by reasoning John Locke (1632 – 1704) believed that the mind was mechanical and followed the laws of nature. When someone is born they are born with a blank slate (tabula rasa) in other words he believed that knowledge was acquired through experiences. Simple ideas come together to form complex ones. He was an empiricist. George Berkeley (1685 – 1753) knowledge requires inferences based on the accumulation of past experiences  learn how to perceive using sense organs James Mill (1773 – 1836) – materialism – belief that reality can be known by understanding the physical world, which the mind is a part of Human and animals were fundamentally the same 2 Luigi Galvani (1737 – 1798) proved that Descartes’ hydraulic model was wrong, muscle contracted by electricity (frog leg’s muscles contract when subjected to electricity). Johannes Muller (1801 – 1858) different nerve fibers convey specific information from one part of the body to the brain and vise versa via electrical impulse. Pier
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