Case = Clive Wearing
Psychology is a relatively new discipline it began in Germany (1920) was an expert in
Psychology is science that focuses on discovering behaviour and explains brain infection he lost
his memory. He feels
its causes. Psychology = psukhe (breath/soul) & logos (word/reason) Greek as though he just
psycho (mind) & logy (science) science of the mind woke up from a deep
In order to explain behaviour one must describe and discover the causes of sleep. Although he
the behaviour. has no memory he
Causal events events that cause other events to occur still hugs his wife
whenever he sees her
and can sing
Fields of psychology flawlessly.
Research based fields
Physiological Physiological basis of behaviour Learning, memory, sensory,
psychology emotion, motivation …
Comparative Studies behaviour of a variety of organisms Mating, courtship,
psychology in attempt to understand the adaptive and predation, parental, defense
functional significance of the behaviours in …
relation to evolution.
Behaviour Events with good effects are
analysis Environments effect on behaviour repeated those with
negative effects are avoided
Behaviour Studies the role of genetics in behaviour Inherited by parents
Cognitive Studies the mental processes and complex Perception, attention,
psychology behaviour learning, memory, problem
Cognitive Discovers the brain mechanisms
neuroscience responsible for cognitive function
Developmental Study of physical, cognitive, emotional and
psychology social development as a function of age and
Social Study of the effects people have on one
Personality Study of individual differences in
psychology temperament and patterns of behaviour
Evolutionary Views behaviours in terms of an adaptive
psychology advantage that through the process of
Cross-cultural Effects of culture on behaviour
Clinical Investigation and treatment of abnormal
psychology behaviour and mental illness
1 Applied psychology
Clinical neuropsychologists Identify and treat behaviours caused by disorders or injury of the
Health psychologists Promote behaviours that prevent illness and maintains health
School psychologists Deals with behavioural issues of students
Consumer psychologists Helps marketing
Community psychologists Works for the social system and improves structure
Organizational psychologists Increases the effectiveness of organizations
Engineering psychologists Improves machines used by people
Forensic psychologists Studies human behaviour related to legal systems
Psychology was “created” by philosophy (father) and biology (mother)
Definition once again – psychology is the science of behaviour can be explained by events
that cause them.
Earlier it was thought that anything that moved or grew independently had a spirit. For
example, if a rock fell they would assume that the rock fell to the floor because it wanted to
be apart of the ground on the other hand fog stayed in the air because it wanted to. These
entities were thought to have a motive force for their actions this is known as animism.
Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) is the father of modern philosophy and biological traditions.
He believed that the world was a mechanical entity that, having once been set in motion by
God and runs its course without interference. Animal’s behaviours were controlled by
natural causes. Therefore the body is thought to be a complex machine (hydraulics).
Reactions don’t require the mind (when you touch a hot stove you automatically remove
your hand, you don’t think about it)
Mind was not considered to be a part of the natural world.
Dualism – philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matter
The mind controls the body however the body, using sense organs, supplies the mind with
information about the environment. Rene Descartes believed the pineal body was
responsible for this interaction.
Model – simple system that works on a known principle and it is able to do at least some of
the things that a more complex system can do. Model of the human body was controlled by a
Empiricism – truth by experimentation and observation
Rationalism – truth by reasoning
John Locke (1632 – 1704) believed that the mind was mechanical and followed the laws of
nature. When someone is born they are born with a blank slate (tabula rasa) in other words
he believed that knowledge was acquired through experiences.
Simple ideas come together to form complex ones. He was an empiricist.
George Berkeley (1685 – 1753) knowledge requires inferences based on the accumulation
of past experiences learn how to perceive using sense organs
James Mill (1773 – 1836) – materialism – belief that reality can be known by understanding
the physical world, which the mind is a part of
Human and animals were fundamentally the same
2 Luigi Galvani (1737 – 1798) proved that Descartes’ hydraulic model was wrong, muscle
contracted by electricity (frog leg’s muscles contract when subjected to electricity).
Johannes Muller (1801 – 1858) different nerve fibers convey specific information from one
part of the body to the brain and vise versa via electrical impulse.