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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

CHAPTER 01 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY Psychology the scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also, the application of the fi ndings of psychological research to the solution of problems. Causal event an event that causes another event to occur. Field of Psychology Physiological psychology the branch of psychology that studies the physiological basis of behaviour. Comparative psychology the branch of psychology that studies the behaviours of ever idea of organisms in an attempt to understand the adaptive functional signifi cance of the behaviours and their relation to evolution. Behaviour analysis the branch of psychology that studies the effect of the environment on behaviour -- primarily, the effects of the consequences of behaviours on the behaviours themselves. Behaviour genetics the branch of psychology that studies the role of genetics in behaviour. Cognitive psychology the branch of psychology that studies complex behaviours and mental processes such as perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation and problem solving. Cognitive neuroscience the branch of psychology that attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the brain mechanisms that are responsible for them. Developmental psychology the branch of psychology that studies the changes in behavioural, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience. Social psychology the branch of psychology devoted to the study of the effects it will have on each other's behaviour. Personality psychology the branch of psychology that attempts to cater eyes and understand the cause of individual differences in patterns of behaviour. Evolutionary psychology branch of psychology explains behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages that specifi c behaviours provided in the evolution of a species. Evolutionary psychologists use natural selection as a guiding principle. Cross-cultural psychology the branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behaviour. Clinical psychology the branch of psychology devoted in investigating and treating abnormal behaviour, psychological disorders. Applied Areas of Psychology Clinical neuropsychologist identification and treatment of the behavioural consequences of nervous system disorders and injuries. Clinical psychologists identification, assessment, treatment of psychological disorders. Community psychologists welfare of individuals in the social system, especially those who are disadvantaged. Consumer psychologists motivation, perception, learning and purchase behaviour of individuals in the marketplace. Engineering psychologists and ergonomists perceptual and cognitive factors in the use of machinery. Forensic psychologists behaviour as it relates to legal and justice systems. Health psychologists behaviour that affects health and lifestyle. Organizational psychologists behaviour in industrial work processes. School psychologists behaviour issues of students in the school setting. THE GROWTH OF PSYCHOLOGY animism the belief that all animals and all moving objects posses spirits providing their motive force. Applications in Education and Therapy • Descartes believed the mind had free will • if u believed in empiricism and materialism you also believed in determinism - the doctrine that behaviour is the result of prior events • d • Itard(psychologist) and Victor (wild boy) lead people to believe eduction and teaching methods were different for different individuals. ⁃ John Dewey helped pass the movement "Progressive Education" in the US (organized kids by age and learning ability) - said education must match the way in which a child's abilities develop • Edward Thorndike established the law of effect - Thorndike's observation that stimuli that occur as a consequence of a response can increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again. (reinforcement and punishment will get wanted results) • Maria Montessori (first female italian doctor / best known as a teacher today) believed and developed - children matured through stages and were sensitive to different kinds of instruction at specifi c age ranges ⁃ Opposed thorndikes theory of rewards; believed it interfered with incentives to learn • Phillippe Pinel (father of psychiatry - psychological disordered treater) ⁃ opened an asylum (facility for psychologically disordered) ⁃ believed mental illness had a social cause and could be curried by similar factors (conversations with therapist, reading etc) • Neurology deals with treatment of diseases of the nervous system (close to psychiatry) • Jean-Martin Charcot believed hysteria was related to hypnosis and treated them by hypnotizing them MAJOR TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY • Wilhelm welt (first to call himself psychologist) moved away from philosophy and biology ⁃ wrote the first textbook (Principles of Physiological Psychology - everything can be explained scientifically) • German's though scientifically cause they were well respected and economically advanced Structuralism • structuralism - They system of experimental psychology that began with Wundt; it emphasized introspective analysis of sensation and perception. • "science of immediate experience" (Wundt named psychology that) ⁃ trained observers described their own experience (called introspection- literally, 'looking within' in an attempt to describe one's own memories, perceptions, cognitive processes, or motivations. • James Mark Baldwin (trained under Wundts' and was a professor at UofT) ⁃ students and faculty petitioned against him ( lots of ppl trained under Wundt and had the "modern" view were looked down upon) Functionalism • functional
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