WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY
the scientiﬁc study of the causes of behaviour; also, the application of the ﬁ ndings of psychological research to
the solution of problems.
an event that causes another event to occur.
Field of Psychology
the branch of psychology that studies the physiological basis of behaviour.
the branch of psychology that studies the behaviours of ever idea of organisms in an attempt to understand
the adaptive functional signiﬁ cance of the behaviours and their relation to evolution.
the branch of psychology that studies the effect of the environment on behaviour -- primarily, the effects of the
consequences of behaviours on the behaviours themselves.
the branch of psychology that studies the role of genetics in behaviour.
the branch of psychology that studies complex behaviours and mental processes such as perception,
attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation and problem solving.
the branch of psychology that attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the
brain mechanisms that are responsible for them.
the branch of psychology that studies the changes in behavioural, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of
organisms as a function of age and experience.
the branch of psychology devoted to the study of the effects it will have on each other's behaviour.
the branch of psychology that attempts to cater eyes and understand the cause of individual differences in
patterns of behaviour.
branch of psychology explains behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages that speciﬁ c behaviours provided in
the evolution of a species. Evolutionary psychologists use natural selection as a guiding principle.
the branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behaviour.
the branch of psychology devoted in investigating and treating abnormal behaviour, psychological disorders.
Applied Areas of Psychology
identiﬁcation and treatment of the behavioural consequences of nervous system disorders and injuries.
identiﬁcation, assessment, treatment of psychological disorders.
welfare of individuals in the social system, especially those who are disadvantaged.
motivation, perception, learning and purchase behaviour of individuals in the marketplace.
Engineering psychologists and ergonomists
perceptual and cognitive factors in the use of machinery.
behaviour as it relates to legal and justice systems.
behaviour that affects health and lifestyle.
behaviour in industrial work processes.
behaviour issues of students in the school setting. THE GROWTH OF PSYCHOLOGY
the belief that all animals and all moving objects posses spirits providing their motive force.
Applications in Education and Therapy
• Descartes believed the mind had free will
• if u believed in empiricism and materialism you also believed in determinism - the doctrine that behaviour is
the result of prior events
• Itard(psychologist) and Victor (wild boy) lead people to believe eduction and teaching methods were
different for different individuals.
⁃ John Dewey helped pass the movement "Progressive Education" in the US (organized kids by age
and learning ability) - said education must match the way in which a child's abilities develop
• Edward Thorndike established the law of effect - Thorndike's observation that stimuli that occur as a
consequence of a response can increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again.
(reinforcement and punishment will get wanted results)
• Maria Montessori (ﬁrst female italian doctor / best known as a teacher today) believed and developed -
children matured through stages and were sensitive to different kinds of instruction at speciﬁ c age ranges
⁃ Opposed thorndikes theory of rewards; believed it interfered with incentives to learn
• Phillippe Pinel (father of psychiatry - psychological disordered treater)
⁃ opened an asylum (facility for psychologically disordered)
⁃ believed mental illness had a social cause and could be curried by similar factors (conversations with
therapist, reading etc)
• Neurology deals with treatment of diseases of the nervous system (close to psychiatry)
• Jean-Martin Charcot believed hysteria was related to hypnosis and treated them by hypnotizing them
MAJOR TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
• Wilhelm welt (ﬁrst to call himself psychologist) moved away from philosophy and biology
⁃ wrote the ﬁrst textbook (Principles of Physiological Psychology - everything can be explained
• German's though scientiﬁcally cause they were well respected and economically advanced
• structuralism - They system of experimental psychology that began with Wundt; it emphasized introspective
analysis of sensation and perception.
• "science of immediate experience" (Wundt named psychology that)
⁃ trained observers described their own experience (called introspection- literally, 'looking within' in
an attempt to describe one's own memories, perceptions, cognitive processes, or motivations.
• James Mark Baldwin (trained under Wundts' and was a professor at UofT)
⁃ students and faculty petitioned against him ( lots of ppl trained under Wundt and had the "modern"
view were looked down upon)