Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA01H3 (1,196)
Steve Joordens (1,052)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Learning and Behaviour

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 7: Learning and Behaviour Habituation - Learning: Then process where the tendency to perform a particular task is changed through experience (ONLY INFERRED THROUGH BEHAVIOUR) - Experiences alter the structure and chemistry of the brain; they eventually effect how the nervous system responds to events Performance: Behavioural change accompanied learning 3 TYPES OF LEARNING: Habitual, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning 1) Habituation: Simplest form of learning: Learning NOT to respond to unimportant event that occurs repeatedly (If it is not worth noticingneutral, IGNORE it) - Sometimes people respond automatically to events (i.e. ducking, blinking, a sudden noise makes an orienting response: response where organism directs appropriate sensory organ to stimulus) - George Humphrey (1933) looked into habituation by conducting simple experiment --> land snails on glass plate, Rankin and colleagues (2005) and work from Nematoda - Simplest form of habituation is TEMPORARY - short-term habituation, animals have complex systems and are capable of long-term habituation - What is the difference? The pattern of experience plays a role Stimuli is massed in quick repetitions, habituations is rapid but short term wile when stimuli is present in small groups but spaced in time, habituation is slow but long term Classical Conditioning 2) Classical Conditioning: Process where response normally elicited from one stimulus (Unconditional StimulusUCS) is controlled by another stimulus (Conditional StimulusCS) - Some experiences have been conditioned into certain things (i.e. in movies, weve been conditioned to certain music motifs that were once neutral sounds) - In December 1904, Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioningPavlovian Conditioning, used dogs --> researcher rings a bell and presents the food, saliva is collected, dog is eventually conditioned to salivate without presence of food and just the bell Unconditional Stimulus (UCS): Stimulus that naturally elicits a reflexive response (i.e. food --> salivation) www.notesolution.com
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