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PSYA01H3 (1,206)
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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Memory

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 8 Memory Overview and Sensory Memory - Memory: Any influence by which past experiences affect current performance the cognitive processes of encoding (sensory information is converted to a form stored in memory system), storing (maintaining information) and retrieving information (locating and using stored information) STIMULUS SENSORY MEMORY WORKING MEMORY LONG-TERM MEMORY - Relationship Between Working and Long-Term Memory: The purpose is not to just transfer information into long term memory, some say that this is thinking - Visual sensory image or iconic memory is sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has been perceived, aka VISUAL PERSISTENCE, the capacity of iconic memory done by Sperling (1960) with 3 tones and stimulus displays (group of words) (focused on visual sensory memory which termed iconic memory) - Auditory sensory memory or echoic memory is sensory memory for sounds that have been perceived, holds representation of initial sounds until entire word has been heard, seems to last longer than iconic memory) Short-Term or Working Memory - Primary Effect: Tendency to recall initial information (i.e. in a list, usually recalls words early in the list), attributed to rehearsal of items (Long-Term Memory) - Recency Effect: Tendency to recall later information (i.e. in a list, usually recalls words last in the list), attributed to either short-term readout or echoic memory - Working memory: Memory for new information and information retrieved from long- term memory, fairly fragile and capacity limited, requires great deal of mental effort to keep things in working memory and once they leave, they are gone, also known as short term memory (Baddeley, 1993) - Short-term memory: Immediate memory for stimuli that has been perceived, the limit seems to be 7 +- 2 chunks (chunking: process where information is simplified by rules are learned) and around 20 seconds - If a person is allowed to rehearse, the information will stay in working memory for as long as it is rehearsed if not, Peterson and Peterson (1959) showed that information decays from the memory fairly quickly www.notesolution.com
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