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Chapter 2

Psychology - Chapter 2

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 2 The Ways and Means of Psychology Psychologists agree upon using a universal method for discovery and explanation called the scientific method (a set of rules that governs the collection and analysis of data gained through observation and experiments - 3 Types of Scientific Research: Naturalist Observation: Observing animals and humans in natural environment with as little involvement (i.e. Jane Goodall and the apes) however, it is very hard for something to be natural in the presence of unnatural phenomenon (and clinical observation: observing behaviour of people undergoing treatment) Correlational Studies: Observations but with measurement and examination of variables related to certain behaviours (i.e. height vs. wealth correlation does not causation, we dont know what causes the results,) Experiments: Use active manipulation to gain a better understanding of how certain variables effect behaviour (changing the variables to confirm cause-and-effect) - Rules of Scientific Research: 1) Identify problem and find the cause-and-effect relations among variables 2) Design Experiment 3) Perform Experiment 4) Evaluate the hypothesis (supports or not?) 5) Communicate the results (descriptions, discussion, journal, articles) - How to Get a Good Idea For Research: Developing a good hypothesis (a statement the expresses the cause-and effect relationship between two or more events) Theory: A set of statements designed to explain a set o phenomena (greater than a hypothesis) Natural observations mean that the researcher tries to stay ut of the picture as much as possible Clinical observations need to report their result in detailed descriptions called case studies (detailed descriptions of individuals behaviour during treatment and diagnosis) - Some psychologists do interfere through asking questions such as a survey study (study of peoples responses to standardized questions) www.notesolution.com
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