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Canada (158,341)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA01H3 (1,196)
Steve Joordens (1,052)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 textbook notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 5: Sensation - Our senses are the means by which we experience the world; everything we learn is detected by sense organs and transmitted to our brains by sensory nerves - Milner and Goodale: ^I]Z]}L}o}}]]ZoZLZ} }L}o}ZK}KLZZ ZL]KoKlZ]L}}Z]L} ]LZ}o_ - Sense systems do that depending on (1) specific modality of the information (2) characteristics of the information and the state of the brain at the time it receives it - Visual system provides stability in the face of rapid shifts in its input. - Sound is not so variable, and is more gradual. Our auditory sense has more time to process signals - When we feel an object, the experience is active, not passive Sensory processing: - Experience is studied by distinguishing between sensation (detection of simple properties of stimuli, such as brightness, colour, warmth and sweetness) and perception (detection of objects both animate and inanimate, their locations, movements and backrounds). - Ex: seeing the colour red is a sensation, but seeing a red apple is a perception Transduction: - Sense organs detect stimuli, provided by light, taste, sound, odor or mechanical contact with the environment. Information about these stimuli is transmitted to the brain through neural impulses J action potentials carried by the axons in sensory nerves - The task of these sense organs is to transmit signals to the brain of the events that have happened in the environment. The task of the brain is to analyze this information and to reconstruct what has occurred - transduction ( leading across): process by which the sense organs convert energy from environmental events (physical stimuli) into neural activity (changes in the activity of receptor cells of sensory organs) - in most senses, specialized neurons called receptor cells ( a neuron that directly responds to a physical stimulus, such as light, vibrations, or smell) release chemical transmitter substances that stimulate other neurons, thus altering the rate of firing their axons - table 5.1 page 130 J types of transduction accomplished by our sense organs Sensory coding - we can tell apart 7.5 million different colours and recognize 10 000 odors - A code is a system of symbols or signals representing information (ex: spoken English, written L Z7] o]2ZZ; - if we know the rules of a code, we can convert a message from one medium to another without losing any information - we do not know the precise rules by which the sensory systems transmit information to the brain, but we know that they take two general forms: (1) Anatomical coding and (2) Temporal coding - Firing of a particular set of neurons tells where the body is being touched (anatomical coding), and the rate at which these neurons fire (temporal coding) tells how intense the touch is. www.notesolution.com
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