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Chapter 2

chapter 2 study guide

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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 2: The Ways and Means of Psychology The Scientific Method in Psychology - Set of rules that dictate the general procedure a scientist must follow in his or her research. - Three major types of scientific research is done o Naturalistic observation and clinical observation Observation of people or animals in their natural environment or while they are undergoing treatment or diagnosis for a psychological condition. Least formal method Foundation of biological and social sciences o Correlational studies Observational in natural but has a more formal measurement of environmental events of individuals physical and social characteristics and of their behaviour o Experiments Beyond measurement Makes things happen and observes the results - Scientific Method: 1) Identify the problem and formulate a hypothetical cause and effect relationship among variables 2) Design the experiment 3) Perform the experiment 4) Evaluate the hypothesis by examining the data from the study. 5) Communicate the results. - Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research o Hypothesis: starting point of any study An idea, phrased as a general statement www.notesolution.com Tentative statement about a cause and effect relation between two or more events o Theories: set of statements that describes and explains known facts, proposes relations among variables, and makes new predictions. good theory is one that generates testable hypotheses o Naturalistic and Clinical Observations as Sources of Hypotheses and Theories To understand human behaviour or other animal’s behaviours, we first have to know something about that behaviour Naturalists: people that observe animals in their natural environment without disturbing them (i.e. Jane Goodall) Case studies: detailed description of an individual’s behaviour during the course of clinical treatment or diagnosis. Survey study: researchers ask people specially designed and controlled questions, i.e. about their beliefs, opinions, or attitudes - Designing an Experiment o Variables: things that vary in value Scientists either manipulate or measure the values of variables There would be two groups: • Experimental group • Control group (won’t get to experience what experimental group experiences) Independent variable: variable that is manipulated Dependent variable: variable that we measure - Performing an Experiment o Reliability of measurements www.notesolution.com Procedure deserved by an operational definition that produces consistent results under consistent conditions o Selecting the Participants Random assignment is u
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