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Chapter 14

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA01 Chapter 14 Personality- is a particular pattern of behavior and thinking that prevails across time and situations and differentiates one person from the next. Personality types- different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences or physical characteristics Personality traits- is an enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behavior in different situations Identification of Personality traits Alport’s Search for Traits;  Gorden Allport (1897-1967) one of the first philologists to search systematically for a basic core for personality traits  Examined possible words from the dictionary in order to explain personality traits, found 18000 words that explained temporary states were eliminated  Cardinal traits- traits that characterize a strong unifying influence on a persons behavior – believed that these traits were rare  Central traits- less singular in their influence than the cardinal traits, but capture more important characteristics of an individual Cattell: Sixteen Personality Factors  Raymond Cattell (1905-1998)  Used Allports 18000 word theory in order to start his theory of central traits  Added 171 adjectives  Referred to 16 traits as source traits Eysenck: Three Factors  Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) used factor analysis to devise his theory of personality  Three important factors; extroversion, neuroticism and psychoticism  Extroversion- refers to an outgoing nature and a high level of activity, extroverts like people and a socializing and take risks  Introversion- introverts are shy, reserved and careful  Neuroticism- have a tendency to be anxious, worried and full of guilt moody and unstable  Emotional stability- the tendency to be relaxed and at peace with ones self  Psychoticism- aggressive, egocentric and antisocial nature  Self-control- tendency to be kind, considerate and obedient to the laws and rules Five Factor Model  A theory stating that personality is composed of five primary dimensions; neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness and consciousness, this theory was developed using factor analysis of rating sof the words people use to describe personality characteristics  Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness Personality Inventory (NEO- PI-R)- (used to measure the FFM) used to measure its elements, R stands for revised, consists of 240 items The Dark Triad  Machiavellianism-a trait characterized by a skill at manipulating others socially  Psychopathy- a trait describing a lack of empathy for others and a high degree of impulsivity  Narcissism- both traits brought together which leads to grandiosity and feelings of superiority READ PAGES 443-447 Social Cognitive Approaches Social cognitive theory- the idea that both the consequences of behavior and individuals beliefs about those consequences determine personality Observational learning- learning though observation of the consequences that others (called models) experience as a result of their behaviors Expectancy- the belief that a certain consequence will follow a certain action (specific) Reciprocal determinism- the idea that behavior, environment, and a person variables interact to determine personality (the act of kindness are met with kindness in return) Self –efficacy- refers to persons beliefs about his or her ability to act as required in a particular situation to experience satisfying outcomes Situationism- the view that the behaviors defining a certain personality are determined solely by the current situation rather than any persevering traits ( high person would run through a stop light) Person variables- individual differences in cognition, which, according to Mischel, include competencies (prior experiences influence action), encoding strategies (the way we perceive information) and personal constructs, expectancies (cause and effect), subjective values (the degree that our values influence behavior), and self regulatory systems and plans (following achievement for goals) Locus of control- refers to whether one believes that the consequences of ones actions are controlled by internal, personal variables or by external, environmental variables – (internal – rewards are dependent on his or her own actions) (external- actions are dependent by outside factors and unaffected by his own) The Psychodynamic Approach Psychodynamic- a term used to describe the Fruedian notion that the mind is a state of conflict among instincts, reason and conscious Unconsciousness- the inaccessible part of the mind Id- completely unconscious part of the mind, it houses the libido, it is the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes Libido- an insistent, instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of reality; the primary source for motivation Pleasure principle- they rule that the id obeys; obtain immediate gratification whatever form it may take Ego- serves as the general manager of personality, making decisions regarding the pleasures that will be pursued and the id’s demand, the persons safety requirements, and the moral dictates of the superego will be follo
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