1. Psychology: the scientific study of mind and behavior.
2. Mind: Our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories and
3. Behavior: observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals.
4. Nativism: the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or
5. Philosophical empiricism: the philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired
6. Phrenology: a now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characters,
ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific
regions of the brain.
7. Physiology: the study of biological processes, especially in the human body.
8. Stimulus: Sensory inputs form the environment.
9. Reaction time: the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus.
10. Consciousness: A persons subjective experience of the world and the mind.
11. Structuralism: the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind.
12. Introspection: the subjective observation of ones own experience.
13. Functionalism: the study of the purpose of mental processes serve in enabling
people to adapt to their environment.
14. Natural selection: Charles Darwins theory that the features of an organism that
help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed onto
15. Hysteria: a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of
emotionally upsetting experiences.
16. Unconscious: the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness
but influences conscious thoughts, feelings and actions.
17. Psychoanalytic theory: Sigmund Freuds approach to understanding human
behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in
shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviors. 18. Psychoanalysis: A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious
material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
19. Humanistic psychology: n approach to understanding human nature that
emphasizes the positive potential of human beings.
20. Behaviorism: an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to
the scientific study of objectively observable behavior.
21. Response: an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus.
22. Reinforcement: the consequences of behavior that determine whether it will be
more likely that behavior will occur again.
23. Illusions: errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective
experience differs from objective reality.
24. Gestalt psychology: a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often
perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts.
25. Cognitive psychology: the scientific study of mental processes, including
perception, thought, memory, and reasoning.
26. Behavioral neuroscience: an approach o psychology that links psychological
processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes.
27. Cognitive neuroscience: A field that attempts to understand the links between
cognitive processes and brain surgery.
28. Evolutionary psychology: a psychological approach that explains mind and
behavior in terms of adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by
29. Cultural psychology: the study of how cultures reflect and shape the
psychological processes of their members.
30. Empiricism: the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through
31. Scientific method: a set of principles about the appropriate relationship between
ideas and evidence.
32. Theory: A hypothetical explanation to a natural phenomenon.
33. Hypothesis: A falsifiable prediction made by a theory.
34. Empirical method: a set of rules and techniques for observation.35. Operational definition: a description of a property in concrete, measurable terms.
36. Measure: a device that can detect the condition to which an operational definition
37. Validity: the extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually
38. Electromyograph (EMG) - a device that measures muscle contractions under the
surface of a persons skin.
39. Reliability: the tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement
whenever it is used to measure the same thing.
40. Power: the ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the
41. Demand characteristics: those aspects of an observational setting that cause
people to behave as they think they should.
42. Naturalistic observation: a technique for gathering scientific information by
unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments.
43. Double-blind: an observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the