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Definitions.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
5Definitions: 1. Psychology: the scientific study of mind and behavior. 2. Mind: Our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories and feelings. 3. Behavior: observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals. 4. Nativism: the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn. 5. Philosophical empiricism: the philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired through experience. 6. Phrenology: a now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characters, ranging from memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain. 7. Physiology: the study of biological processes, especially in the human body. 8. Stimulus: Sensory inputs form the environment. 9. Reaction time: the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus. 10. Consciousness: A persons subjective experience of the world and the mind. 11. Structuralism: the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind. 12. Introspection: the subjective observation of ones own experience. 13. Functionalism: the study of the purpose of mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment. 14. Natural selection: Charles Darwins theory that the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed onto subsequent generations. 15. Hysteria: a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences. 16. Unconscious: the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings and actions. 17. Psychoanalytic theory: Sigmund Freuds approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts and behaviors. 18. Psychoanalysis: A therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders. 19. Humanistic psychology: n approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings. 20. Behaviorism: an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior. 21. Response: an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus. 22. Reinforcement: the consequences of behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that behavior will occur again. 23. Illusions: errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differs from objective reality. 24. Gestalt psychology: a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts. 25. Cognitive psychology: the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning. 26. Behavioral neuroscience: an approach o psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes. 27. Cognitive neuroscience: A field that attempts to understand the links between cognitive processes and brain surgery. 28. Evolutionary psychology: a psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection. 29. Cultural psychology: the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members. 30. Empiricism: the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation. 31. Scientific method: a set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence. 32. Theory: A hypothetical explanation to a natural phenomenon. 33. Hypothesis: A falsifiable prediction made by a theory. 34. Empirical method: a set of rules and techniques for observation.35. Operational definition: a description of a property in concrete, measurable terms. 36. Measure: a device that can detect the condition to which an operational definition refers. 37. Validity: the extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related. 38. Electromyograph (EMG) - a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a persons skin. 39. Reliability: the tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing. 40. Power: the ability of a measure to detect the concrete conditions specified in the operational definition. 41. Demand characteristics: those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should. 42. Naturalistic observation: a technique for gathering scientific information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments. 43. Double-blind: an observation whose true purpose is hidden from both the observer an
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