Textbook Notes (368,316)
Canada (161,798)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA01H3 (1,206)
Steve Joordens (1,058)
Chapter 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Fall

Description
 Hallucinations- side effect of abusing methamphetamine. Davids prolonged crystal meth habit had altered his normal functioning of some chemicals in his brain, distorting his perception of reality.  Betty had a stroke that damaged an area on the right side of the brain. It was a rare disorder called prosopagnosia., which is the inability to recognise familiar faces as a result of the brain damage caused by her stroke.  Neurons: Cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks.  Santiago Ramon y Cajal- Spanish physician, learned about a new technique for staining neurons in the brain the stain highlighted the appearance of entire cells, revealing that they came in different shapes and sizes.  Neurons have three basic parts” the cell body, dendrites and the axon. Neurons have two types of specialized extensions of the cell membrane that allow them to communicate: dendrites and axons.  The cell body: it is also known as a soma. It is the largest component of the neuron that coordinates the information- processing tasks and keeps the cell alive. Functions include; protein synthesis, energy production and metabolism. The cellbody contains the nucleus; this structure houses chromosomes that contain DNA. It is surrounded by a porous cell membrane that allows molecules to flow into and out of the cell.  Dendrites: they receive information from other neurons and relay it to the cell body. It comes from the greek work for “tree” as they look like tree branches.  Axon: it transmits information to other neurons, muscles, or glands. Each neuron has a single axon that sometimes can be very long, even stretching up to a meter from the base of the spinal cord.  Myelin Sheath: This covers the axon. It is an insulating layer of fatty material. It is composed of glial cells, which are support cells found in the nervous system. Some glial cells digest parts of the dead neurons, others provide physical and nutritional support for neurons and other form myelin sheath to help the axon transmit information more efficiently. Demyelinating diseases, such an multiple sclerosis, the myelin sheath deteriorates, slowing the transmission of information from one neuron to the other. This leads to loss of feeling in limbs, partial blindness and difficulties in coordinated movement and cognition.  There is a small gap between the axon of a neuron and the dendrites or the cell body of another. This gap is known as synapse: the junction or region betweem the axon of oen neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another.  Sensory Neurons: it receves information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord. They have specialized endings on their dendrites that receives signals for light, sound, touch, taste and smell. In our eyes, our sensory neurons ending are sensitive to light  Motor Neurons: it carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement. These neurons oftwn have long axons that can stretch to muscles at our extremists.  Interneurons: Most of the nervous system consists of this. They connect sensory neurons, morotr neurons or other interneurons. Some carry information from sensory neurons unto the nervous system, while other carry information from the nervous system to motor neurons and still other perform a variety of information-processins functions within the nervous system. They work together in small circuits to perform simple tasks, such as identifying the location of a sensory signal and recognizing a familiar face.  Purkinje Cells: carries information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain and spinal cord. They have dense elaborate dendrites that resemble bushes.  Pyramidal Cells: found in the cerebral cortex, have a triangular cell body and a single, long dendrite among many smaller dendrites.  Bipolar cells: found in the retinas of the ye, have a single axon and a single sendrite. The brian processes types of information so a substantial amount of specialization at the cellular level has evolved to handle these tasks.  Conduction : conduction of an electric signal over relatively long distances within neurons, from the dendrites, to the cell body, then throughout the axon.  Transmission: transmission of chemical signals between neurons over the synapse.  Conduction and transmission together is knowsn as electrochemical action of neurons.  Neurons cell membrane is porous. They have a natural electric charge called the resting potential.  Resting potential: the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neurons cell membrane.  Action Potential: electric signal that is conducted along the length of a neurons axon of the synapse.  Axon ends in terminal buttons, which are knoblike structres that branch out from an axon. A terminal button is filled with tiny vesicles that contain neurotransmitters, chemicals that transmit information acorss the synapse to a receiving neuron’s dendrites. The dendrites of the receving neuron contain receptors, parts of the cell membrane that receive neurotransmitters and either initiate or prevent a new electrical signal.  Acetylcholine: A neuro transmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control, was one of the first neurotransmitters to be discovered. Found in the brain and in the synapses where axons connect to muscles and body organs. They activate muscles to initiate motor behaviour. Alzheimars desease and memory condition with severe memory impairments is associated with the deteroration of Acetylcholine.  Dopamine: is a neurotransmitter that regulayes motor behaviour, motivation, pleasure and emotional arousal. High levels of dopamine is linked with schizophrenia, while low levels are linked with Parkinson’s disease. Plays a role in drug addiction.  Glutamate: is a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in information transmission throughout the brain. It enhances the transmission of information. Too much of it can overstimulate the brain and cause seizures.  GABA- gamma-aminobutyric acid- is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. They stop firing the neurons. Too little GABA can cause neurons to become overactive.  Norepinephrine: a neurotransmitter that influences mood and arousal. Is particularly involved in states of vigilance.low levels result in mood disorder.  Serotonin: involved in regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating and aggressive behaviour. Low levels result in mood disorders.  Endorphines: are chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centres of the brain. Calming and pleasurable effect.  Agonists: drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter.  Antagonists: drugs that block the function of the neurotransmitter.  Methamphetamine: afeects pathways for dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine at the neurons synapses, making it difficult to interpret exactly how it works. The combination of its agonist and antagonist effects alters the fucntions f neurotransmitters that help us perceive and interpret visual images.  Amphetamine: popular drug that stimulates the release of norepinephrines and dopamine. In addition, both amphetamine and cocaine prevent the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine.  Prozac: a drug commonly used to treat depression. Is a neurotransmitter agonist. Blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin, making it part of a category of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.  The nervous system is an interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body.  The central nervous system is composed of the brain and the spinal cord. It received sensory information from the external world, processes and coordinates this information and sends
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