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Chapter 3

chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 3: Evolution heredity and behaviour The development of evolutionary theory Heredity and genetics Humans and evolution The development of evolutionary theory - Understanding behaviour requires to learn about both proximate and ultimate causes of behaviour Biological evolution- Changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics in a population or group of organisms over time. - Darwins concept, argues that over time organisms originate and become adapted to their environment by biological means - Became the dominant aspect of psy in North America Adaptive significance- the effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organism to adapt to changing environmental conditions Evolutionary psychology- new subfield of psych that studies how evolution and genetic variables influence adaptive behaviour Ultimate causes-(Latin- ultimatus to come to an end) evolutionary events and conditions throughout the generations that have slow shaped our behaviours through time Proximate causes- (Latin- proximus near) immediate environmental and condition variables that affect behaviour Culture- sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs and behaviour patterns common to a particular group of people For instance, in Psych P.O.V, how thinking and behaving shape cultural adaptations to changing environmental conditions John la-mark -18 century- proposed environment responsible for structural changes in plants n animals ex: changes in structural characteristics, when they catch prey - inheritance of acquired characteristics Herbert Spencer- came after la-mark; liked his idea; social Darwinism, thru evolution separation occurs but systems become more complex; human brains evolves and changes + progess. - Introduced orderly evolution- believed that evolution had purpose, to seek pleasure+ avoid pain known as Spencer Bain Principle Darwin - 1809-82 - Doesnt believe in pain and pleasure accidental variation, parents couldnt choosecharacteristics, it just randomly happened. NO purpose, or direction - Features that help survival are not only necessary but helpful to survival in a given environment. 1 www.notesolution.comThe Voyage of the Beagle -Darwin had a friend he met at Christs College who gave up his opportunity and gave it to Darwin- to be an unpaid naturalist and travelling for 5 years on the HMS Beagle boat which ended in 1836 - Graduated with a degree in theology in England 1831 - The mission of the Beagle, was to explore and survey the coast of South America and to make hydro graphic measurements worldwide - observed the plants, flowers, and fauna of south America, Australia, south Africa, and islands of pacific, south Atlantic and Indian oceans, Galapagos islands off the west coast of south America - the creatures and objects that he collected were sent to England throughout the trip which were later examined by naturalists from all over Europe The origin of species- published in 1859 Artificial selection- procedure which specific animals are used to mate with another to produce off springs that posses desirable characteristics - Darwin bred pigeons for a while, in which led to his new assumption: if artificial selection can produce such different varieties of pigeons, could a similar process result in different species? - This led him to develop the idea of biological evolution which explains how genetic and physical changes occur in groups of animals over time Natural selection- the consequence of the fact that because ther are physical and behavioural differences among organisms, they reproduce differently. ex, some animals who are the survivors may produce more off springs than other animals, occurs among off spring babies. Based on accidental variation and competition Therefore, natural selection is the primary element of biological evolution Alfred Wallace, also came up with the principal of natural selection Both Darwin and Wallace were inspired by the book population by Malthus Made a joint presentation- each lay equal claim of the theory and Darwins abstract today is known as Origin of Species Evolution can be put into 4 insights 1. Species are not fixed, but rather change over time 2. Evolution is a branching process- all species descend from a single common ancestor 3. Evolution is continuous with gradual changes 4. Evolution is based on natural selection Evolution is based on 2 things (basically shows that those that have characteristics to compete better are likely to survive and reproduce) 2 www.notesolution.com
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