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Chapter 4

chapter 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 4: Biology of behavior THE BRAIN AND ITS COMPONENTS Approx 10- 100 billion nerve cells Donald Hebb - provided foundation of a better understanding of the brain 60 yrs back o Proposed how individual nerve cells are organized; structured to generate higher processesof the brain memory, thought, decision making o Canadian o Neurons form connections; from the time we are born, more are built o b/c of his work, neuroscientist learn that brain organized in modules- clusters of never cells that communicate w/ each other + connected to other neurons. The Nervous System Brain 3 major functions 1. master of controlling and communicating behaviour 2. process + storing info from environment 3. Regulate bodys physiological processes 1)Peripheral Nervous System: Consists of Neurons that convey messages to and from the Central Nervous System. This is broken into two parts which are the somatic and automatic - Sensory info (environment + inside body) is transmitted from sensory organs to brain+ spinal cord - Info from head + neck reaches brain through cranial nerves - Sensory info from rest of body reaches spinal cord to brain through spinal nerves - Cranial nerves- bundle of nerve fibers attached to base of brain, conveys sensory info from face + head + carry msgs to muscle + glands - Spinal nerve; nerves attached to spinal cord; convey sensory info from body + carry msgs to muscle and glands 2)Central Nervous System: Consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain and the spinal cord interpret incoming sensory information based on post experience - Communicate w/ rest of body through nerves bundle of fibers that transmit info in + out of CNS Spinal cord- long, thin collection of never cells attached to brain - Contain nerve cells which control simple reflexes automatically pull away from hot object www.notesolution.com AFFERENT NEURONS/ SENSORY EFFERENT NEURONS/ MOTOR transfer info from receptor to the brain when it involuntary actions detects change in enviroment (ex: cool breeze) never ending job- digestion, breathing, heart tells the body about changes (sore throat) rate, BP from body to CNS sends info through spinal cord and brain transmit info from CNS to the muscle INTERNEURONS connects other neurons together that is found in the brain and spinal cord contain sensory + motor neurons Automatic Nervous System: Serves internal bodily structures that carry out basic life processessuch as digestion and respiration. It serves basic life functions such as breathing, heart beat and stress Sympathetic System: prepares the body in response to a threat. The parasympathetic nervous system calms the body and maintains energy (sexual arousal) Fight/Flight (Sympathetic) Rest/Digest Automatic Somatic Nervous System: brings info to the central nervous system and carries out its commands. The sensory neurons receive info through receptors in the eyes, ears, skin and musicles. The motor nerons direct the action of skeleton muscles. Is involved in the intentional actions such as standing or shaking hands, this is known as voluntary nervous system.Conveys info to the central nervous system *when you react quickly, somatic takes over automatic Sympathetic Nervous System keyword is sympathy(what you feel for someone) Hence sympathetic nerves function is to arouse and energize body it is typically activated in response to threats its job is to ready the body for fight/flight (it does this is several ways) 1. its stops digestion, since diverting blood away frm the stomach allowing for more blood to be directed the the muscles which may need more oxygen for an emergency response. 2. It increase heart rate, dilates the pupils and causes hair to stand up on your body b/c the sympathetic nervous system prepares an organism to respond to emergencies, it serves an important adaptive function (but may respond at a time when least wanted) The sympathetic nervous system originates in the spinal cord Prepares the body to copewith stress Parasympathetic Nervous System www.notesolution.com Supports activities that maintain the bodies store of engery such as regulting blood sugar levels, secreting saliva and wastes helps regulate heart rate and pupil size The relationship between symptahtic and para is a balancing act When an emergency has passed the parasympathetic resumes control and calms the body down It is referred to as the house keeping system and its control of time Endocrine System - chemical communication network/system - The hormones produced by these glands are chemical messengers that are transported throughout the body by the blood. - Hormones: secrete hormones that circulate blood + regulate function and growth of body - Hypothalamus; releasing and release-inhibiting hormones Regulate anterior pituitary hormones - Pituitary gland- master gland that controls everything www.notesolution.com www.notesolution.com
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