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Chapter 7

chapter 7

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Chapter 7 HABITUATION Simplest form of learning Learning not to respond to unimportant events that occur repeatedly Example: a dog getting startled by a noise that happens in the house all the time Learning; adaptive process w the tendency to perform a particular behaviour that is changed by experience Performance; behavioural change caused by internal changes brought about by learning; otherwise, the evidence that learning has occurred Orienting response; any response where we become alert and turn our heads towards the direction of the noise. Humphrey-he conducted a snail experiment; snails ended up showing temporary habituation bc they eventually show fear within the next day if startled w noise again Worms have 302 neurons in their entire nervous system Short term habituation Where the getting used to certain noises or taps or startles is only temporary o Example: snails- after millions of times they get used to the taps and dont hide in their shell anymore but if you stop for a couple of days, they have to learn habituation again. They get startled again o They dont remember what theyve learned o Normally have simple nervous systems like worms and snails Long term habituation Animals that have complex nervous systems have long term habituation What makes short term different from long term; pattern of experience o Stimuli that is massed accumulated into quick repetitions, habituation is rapid TF short term o Stimuli that shown in small groups spaced in time, habituation is slower TF long term CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Involves learning about conditions which can be used to predict that significant event which will occur Define: process by which a response normally draw out by 1 stimulus (the unconditional stimulus or UCS) comes to be controlled by another stimulus (conditional stimulus or CS) Most of our behaviour is learnt through classical conditioning o You drool when you smell food o You experience weird emotions of pain when you see someone you recently argued w Pavlov Physiologist who wanted to discover the neural mechanisms controlling glandular secretions during digestions Discovered a form of learning through dogs who salivate when they hear a bell This type of learning= classical conditioning AKA Pavlovian conditioning Conditioning only occurs when the food followed the bell within a short time, any long delay btw sound and food or you give food first then sound (backward conditioning); they will never learn to salivate Sequence and time of events are important factors Helps understand cause and effect relationships btw environmental events Basic classical conditioning procedure Unconditional stimulus (UCS)- a stimulus that naturally brings out or elicits reflexive behaviourresponse ex: food Unconditional response (UCR)- the response that is caused by UCS example: saliva Conditional stimulus (CS)- neutral stimulus paired with UCS (CS + UCS) that creates a response of CS Conditional response (CR)- the response caused by CS Prior to conditioning UCS UCR- salivation CS- tone hear sound but no saliva Conditioning CS-tone + UCS (food in mouth) UCR (saliva) www.notesolution.com
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