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PSYA01H3 (1,206)
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Chapter 6


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Steve Joordens

Perception (FINALE) LANGUAGE AND PERCEPTION p182, GBox, 1 Whorf Hypothesis = pricniple of linguistic relativity - link b/ween language spoken by particular culture AND their thoughts & perceptions (ie. spoken lang. dictates person's thoughts/perceptions) > perception dictated by lang. > lang. has strong impact towards how world is perceived by ppl p182, GBox, 2 Whorf Hypothesis > colour names vary b/c of conventions used from culture to culture Berlin et al's Test of the Whorf Hypothesis > 11 primary colours, diff. term spoken for each lang. = focal colours > if brought down to certain no. of primary colours (ex. 3), all would agree to same ones (ex. 3 primary colours were B/W/R) > shows that fcning of visual sys. plays role in choosing categories for colours & not conventions of culture when it comes to choosing colour names p182, GBox, 3 Heider's Study - ppl (young-adult) remember focal colours more easily than non-focal (ex. remembering blue > turquiose) Roisch's Study: - even if they don't have pre-established terms for that colour, they still learn those that fall under the focal category better than non-focal (ex. Dani culture only had B/W as 2 basic colour terms & when subj's taught made-up names (1 group focal, other group non-focal), remembered focal better) p182, GBox, 4-5 Roberson et al's Study - English-speaking vs Berinmo-speaking adults > place colours into 2 categories: nol (G/B/Pur shades), wor (Y/O/Br/Khaki shades) - each group showed 3 cards - couldn't perform well when asked to make distinctions that the other lang group would see right away (ex. BER. saw khaki & green as diff. colours due to putting them into 2 groups, but ENG. didn't) (ex. ENG saw green, yellow & blue as diff. colours, but BER only saw diff. b/ween yellow & G/B) => colour perception impacted by language p183,GBox, 6 Reiger et al's Study - most lang. groups differentiate amongst certain focal colours - Whorf's hypothesis doesn't apply to universal colours (that all cultures, regardless of their lang., perceive as v.same) Roberson's Study - showed individuals speaking diff. lang's show distinction in ability to tell diff. b/ween colours (colour perception impacted by their lang.) cue = signals? [?] Perception (FINALE) Recall: PERCEPTION - process thro. we recognized the repion of info. coming from sensory organs (whats the meaning behind the info. is identified) VISUAL PERCEPTION OF SPACE AND MOTION - able to perceive whereabouts of obj's w/in environmt & space. p184, 1 Depth Perception- Hows it done? - perceiving distance from obj to us, obj to other obj's > (2) If on sides of heads, then only (1) interposition - if there's an obj that blocks another (comes in front of other), then perceived as being closer to us. (ex. perceive egg being closer than bottle) converge - come Interposition (con) from diff. pts and - most efficient when there's familarity w/ obj. meet up w/ each other - working w/ unfamilar obj's? > depth perception impacted by Principle of Good Form based on objs' loc's from each other> Principle of Good Form - obj. w/ simpler border preceived as being closer. - allows us to see obj. in more than 1 way (allows for ambiguity) (ie.) can preceive (a) as 2 rectangles, where one hiding other, where other option is b) rectangle nested in L-shaped chair rotated 90 degrees) > [A] - 2 identical rectangles, but rectangle that's complete preceived as being closer. > [B] - obj. w/ simpler border perceived as closer (2 same rectangles,1in front of other) > [C] - rectangle pos. w/in L-shaped obj. Seen as being farther away from us (so hidden partly by other) - influenced by Principle to see rectangle as 2 simple shapes, where 1's behind the other 2) Binocular Cues - signals about distance dependent upon input arising from both eyes - arise due to visual field in both eyes overlapping > convergence \ the pt that eyes are fixed upon is the exact same; result from vergence movemts \ input incoming from movemts give info. on how far away obj is from viewer - Why make vergence mvemts? - for looking at v.same pt in scene - key for looking at nearby obj's, ones close to our grasp - angle b/ween 2 eyes related to distance from eye to obj. controlled by muscles (ex. if v.close, angle larger, Fig6.21, Visual Book) - Case: > obj. v.near to face - inward turning of eyes (cross-eyed) = larger angle > obj. far away - pt straight ahead at it = smaller angle > retinal disparity (ex. holding 2 fingers up, putting them at a diff. distance apart, and focusing eyes only on 1) (ex. Result: double img of finger that we're not focusing on; due to img falling at diff. parts of retina, making us see 2 fingers instead of 1) - known fact that obj. at distance distant from focal pt of observer drops at diff. regions on each eye's retina - those obj's at distances different from that of obj of focus fall at diff. parts of retina in each eye > key for telling us how far those obj's are from us Stereopsis - depth perception that's result of retinal disparity Stereoscope - device that disp
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