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Chapter 7

[*] PSYA02 - Chapter 7 {Complete, stand-alone from Text} - Joordens

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYCHOLOGY [!] Classical vs Operant CHAPTER OUTLINE, p195 [!] elicit - to succeed in getting information or a Learning - adaptive process thro. which one's propensity to do particular reaction from someone, especially when this is behaviour becomes altered by experience. difficult (Longman) (aka "bring forth") INTRODUCTION, p196,1 - modifiable responses in behaviour via particular experiences [!] aversion - strong dislike to some1/sth (ex. experienced hiker knows trial so much that he can describe it to lost ppl via (Longman) phone, instead of sending rescue crews to dir. them) - thro. what circumstances do modifications to behavior occur? [Learning - adaptive process thro. which one's propensity to do particular behaviour becomes LEARNING: DEFINED, p196, 2 altered by expernce.] - "(CHAPTER OUTLINE, def'n) - behaviour not subj. to only changing by learning CC - Classical Conditioning (ex. mental causes) - can occur w/out showing itself in direct manner (ie. unaware of changing behaviour thro. observation) (ex. learned to change bike's flat tire, but peer saw no diff. in you until you actually changed the tire for him.) - only able to be observed indirectly via behavioural alterations PERFORMANCE: DEFINED, p196,3 - p197,1 \ behavioural alteration arising from internal changes introduced by ie. Long-Term Potentiation learning - evidence that learning happened - change in internal mechanics (ex. modification in brain structure) - conflicting evidence, b/c other factors also impact behaviour via internal manner (ex. motivation, fatigue) > to distinguish from these factors, learning seen as occuring if it withstands (contrast: motivation), & its specific (contrast: fatigue) . CHAPTER UNFOLDING, p197,2 - 3 behavioural types: conditioning: (a) operant, (b) classical; habituation - Commonality: causal relationship (ie. envirnmt causes behaviour to occur) (causal relation b/ween envirnmt & behaviour) HABITUATION, HABITUATION: DEFINED p197,3 \ most simplest means of learning, in which you don't respond to SINGLE event that occurs over & over again. *- filtering out stimulus that're not impt, & instead focusing more on those impt - E-wasting to respond if event insignif. to orgsm. > (ex. crucial for reprod, survival) > (ex. same noise heard over&over again to extent that its ignored) VS. an orienting response \ any response that makes orgsm move its relative sensory organs (those right for situation) towards source of unusual stimulus. > aka "startle response" > (ex. hearing unexpected noise) - primitive learning type (ie. even ancient neural sys. of primitive orgsms able to carry this response out) Humphrey's Land Snail Expt - several snails put on plate, & tap plate > result: quickly dropped back into their shells (aka "fright response") (= orienting response) - subsequent taps resulted in less likelihood that snails drop back in (= habituation) HABITUATION: EVOL.Y PERSPECTIVE. p197,3 - if stimulus being once unsual occurs again & again w/out having impt conseq, then deemed not impt to orgsm HABITUATION (Con.) [Learning - adaptive process - time-consuming & E-wasting to respond to such a stimulus thro. which one's propensity to (ex. if habituation reponse (drop back into shell) in snails never died out, they'd always stay in there, do particular behaviour becomes until condition absent) altered by expernce.] (ex. v.distracting to be thrown off by household noise that was once an orienting response, but now is plain annoying (=became habituated to it overtime) HABITUATION: SNAIL EXAMPLE. p197,4 - other internal factors could've involved snail not going back to shell after repeated taps, instead of habituation (ex. too tired = fatigue) HABITUATION: RANKIN'S EXPMT. p197,4 - worm - showed how could make 1 response become habituated, whilst leaving other oriented (ie. still gets startled by it) (ex. worms learned about "truth of tapping", but still back away from presence of heat) - depicting that habituation towards specific responses, rather than being general (ex. fatigue; could be tired for multiple things) Short-term vs Long-term Habituation (combined) - trends in expernce (below portion) SHORT-TERM HABITUATION p197,5 - LONG-TERM HABITUATION, p198,2 p198,1 - long-term - temporary - (ex. sophisticated orgsms able to carry this - often the case when orgsm not remembering out) that it became habituated by that response b4 - (ex. scared of unfamiliar noises from residence (ex. ST-habituation caused by time gaps from at 1st, but then become habituated for so long last time being habituated) that it doesn't even matter anymore) - consistently tap to snails until orienting response turns to habituation - stop doing it (for a while) - come back few days later, & do it; Result = oriented response prevalant again. - ST: happens when stimuli come quickly over & - LT: happens when stimuli presented spaced over again, go away for 't' period, then come out in time (ie. intervals) back = slower habituation, but LT = rapid habituation, but doesn't last long at all - (ex. spasmodic noises coming from (=ST) neighbouring houses) CLASSICAL CONDITIONING: INTRODUCTION p198,4 = learning conditions that'd dictate when impt. event occurs -vs. Habituation - learning about one event (that one incident that they're habituated to) (ex. watery mouth due to being hungry & smelling favourite food r'xn towrads smell-food experience relationship) (ex. CR = fearful behaviour towards scene w/ woman alone in warehouse & creepy noise starts playing) - sudden sights & sounds the cause for automatic, unlearned r'xn to pop up (ex. creepy music playing from movie; music-fright) - once being neutral sound, it has become sth frightful when combined w/ movie & theatre PAVLOV'S SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVER
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