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Canada (158,281)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA01H3 (1,196)
Steve Joordens (1,052)
Chapter 3

PSYA01 chapter 3 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Psychology Chapter 3 Evolution, Heredity, and Behavior Development Evolutionary Theory Charles Darwin argued that over time, organisms originate and become adapted to their environments by biological means Biological evolution changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time Many behavioral differences among organisms, both within and across species, correspond to genetic and other biological differences Adaptive significance effectiveness of behavior in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions Those who receive high scores on psychological tests for novelty are considered to be impulsive, exploratory or excitable while those who receive low scores are considered reflective, stoic and slow-tempered Psychologists might research how past environmental conditions may favor novelty seeking over more conservative reactions and how the immediate environment influences day-to-day choices Ultimate causes evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behavior of a species over generations Proximate causes immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behavior Gerbil test o A male fetus that develops next to other males is exposed to higher levels of the male sex hormone, testosterone o A male fetus that develops next to other females he will grow up to be not as interested in females To understand the present, we must understand the past o Psychologists want to understand how adaptive behavior develops through the long-term process of evolution www.notesolution.com We are members of the human species ultimate cause We have learned to act in a special way proximate cause Biology and environment contribute to our development Evolutionary psychology investigates how an organisms evolutionary history contributes to the development of behavior patterns and cognitive strategies related to reproduction and survival during its lifetime Culture sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behavior patterns common to a particular group of people Alfred Russell Wallace and Darwin came up with the natural selection theory at the same time The Voyage of the Beagle Darwin went aboard the Beagle to explore and survey the coast of South America Collected many creatures and objects which were later examined by naturalists Origin of Species Voyage ended in 1836 Artificial selection procedure in which particular animals are deliberately mated to produce offspring that possess especially desirable characteristics o People are able to choose the specific characteristics that they do or do not want the animals to breed o Darwin speculated if artificial selection could also result in a different species Natural selection consequence of the fact that, because there are physical and behavioral differences among organisms, they reproduce differently o Within a given population, some animals the survivors will produce more offspring than will other animals Any animal that has characteristics that helps it to survive or adapt to changes in environment will live longer and produce more offspring Natural Selection Species are not fixed, but rather change over time www.notesolution.com
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