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Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

CHAPTER 11: Intelligence and Thinking - In general, people who do well academically or succeed at tasks that involve smarts/using their heads, then they are considered to be intelleigent - Intelligence: a persons ability to learn and remember info, to recog concepts and their relations, , and to apply the info to their own behav in an adaptive way definition depends on cultural judgements analyses of the types of skills that help us survive and flourish in diff cultures suggests that we should broaden the general definition to include more abilities - Study of intelligence is dominated by 3 main approaches: 1) differential approach: involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individ diff in ppls knowledge and abilities to solve problems usually imp classroom skills; test involve asking for definitions, explain proverbs, solve math probs, etc 2) developmental approach: based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think abt the world proponent of swiss psych Jean Piaget 3) information processing approach: focuses on the types of skills ppl use to think and to solve problems Robert sternbergs influential theory of successful intelligence; personal strengths/weaknesses 1. Theories of Intelligence - Differential approach assumes we can investigate the nature of intelligence by studying the ways ppl differ on tests of intellectual abilities IQ test measures intelligence based on a single number does not mean that intelligence is a single, general charact many skills involved but one number generalizing all doesnt determine much - Some researchers promote idea that some intellectual activities are independent of one another ppl agree that intelligence is a global trait, but ppl also have specific intellectual abilities reject that specific abilities are completely independent or one general factor influences all abilities SPEARMANS TWO-FACTOR THEORY - Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a persons performance on an intellectual ability test is based on two factors 1) g factor: (general factor) a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of exp, education of relations, and education of correlates didnt call it intelligence; too vague comprised of 3 qualitative principles of cognition apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of correlates eduction is the process of drawing or bringing out of figuring out from diff facts apprehension of exp = ppls ability to perceive and understand what they exp eduction of relations = ability to perceive the relation b/w two or more things eduction of correlates = ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case all 3 used in analogy cases; used in intelligence testing 2) s factor: a factor of intelligence specific to a partic task - If there are 10 tests and each one measures a separate, independent ability, the scores will be unrelated; the correlations among tests will be approx 0 - If there are 10 tests and they are diff manifestations of a single trait, then the scores will be perfectly related; correlation will be around 1.0 - Never really 0 or 1.0; actually b/w 0.3 0.7; tests are moderately correlated - Concluded that a general factor (g) accounted for moderate correlations among diff tests thus a persons score to a specific test depends on (1) their specific ability on the partic test (s) (2) their level of g factor or general reasoning ability EVIDENCE FROM FACTOR ANALYSIS - Pearson and Spearman developed statistical procedure factor analysis: indentifies common factors among groups of tests identify underlying commonalities among groups of tests e.g. intelligence tests have common factors of partic abilities that affect ppls performance on more than one test if a person takes a lot of tests and their scores on the several of the tests correlate well, then the tests or subjects measure the same factor which sets of tests form groups - Birren and Morrison administered the Wechsler adult intelligence scale to ppl who took a test calc correlations each subtest had w/ every other subtest and then subjected these to factor analysis - Analysis revealed 3 factors w/ number values called factor loadings like correlation coeff and express degree to which a partic test is related to a partic factor name given by investigator; subjective judgement - Factor analysis gives clues about the nature of intelligence, but not the theory can never be more meaningful than the individ tests done - To identify factors of human intelligence, extensive variety of tests are needed - E.g. Thurstone found 7 factors and was concerned that they lacked a common g factor, but later study by Eysenck suggested that there was a common second-order factor of general intelligence - Catell performed a second-order factor analysis and found 2 major factors; fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence fluid intelligence: culture-free tasks like those that measure the ability to see relations among objects or patterns in repeating series; related to native capacity for intellectual performance; potential ability to learn or solve new probs crystallized intelligence: tasks that require ppl to have acquired info from their culture like vocab and stuff learned in schools; what a person has accomplished thru using their fluid intelligence; what they have learned both based to a degree of heredity casual/cultural learning vs. School-based learning - Catell says that fluid intell supplies native ability whereas exp to lang and exposure to books and other resources develops crystallized intelligence - If 2 ppl have same exp, the one w/ greater fluid intell will have a greater crystallized intell - But a person w/ high fluid intell that is exposed to poor intellectual enviro will develop a poor/mediocre crystallized intell AN INFORMATION PROCESSING THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE - Robert Sternberg says that the degree of success that ppl achieve in life is strongly affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze and manage their unique combos of strengths and weaknesses developed a triarchic (ruled by 3) theory of intell derived from info processing - all 3 aspects contribute to successful intelligence: according to Sternberg, the ability to effectively analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses analyze ones strengths and weaknesses use the strengths to the greatest advantage minimize impact of weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them - analytic intelligence: mental mech ppl use to plan and execute tasks; includes metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge acquisition components serves 3 functs metacomponents (transcending) are processes by which ppl decide the nature of an intell problem, select a strategy for solving it, and allocate their resources; PLANNING e.g. how much time a reader takes to read a passage depends on how much info they need from it performance components are the processes actually used to perform the task; e.g. word recog knowledge acquisition components are those that ppl use to gain new knowledge by sifting out releveant info and integrating it w/ what they already kno - creative intelligence: the ability to deal effectively w/ novel situations and to solve problems automatically that have been encountered previously high creative intell = able to analyze the situation and bring mental resources to fix problem, even if it isnt familiar to them after facing the same prob a lot, they will be able to automate the procedure so that similar probs can be solved w/o much thought; less work related to fluid and crystallized intell; fluid intell tasks require novel approaches and tasks using crystallized intell use automatic mental processes willing to take criticism and initial rejection of their new ideas; new ideas threaten security of of pplwho have power to implement them creative ppl have to know when its the right time to press their ideas or move on to new ones - practical intelligence: intelligence that reflects the behav that were subject to natural selec takes 3 forms adaptation: fitting oneself into ones enviro by developing useful skills and behav selection: finding ones own niche in the enviro shaping: changing the enviro socio-cultural and phys context play a big role in the development and manifestation of practical intell optimistic approach; when the enviro is not a good match (adaptation doesnt work) or ppl cannot find a good alternative enviro (selection doesnt work) then they can change their enviro to suit their abilities - observation of ppl w/ frontal lobe damage supports sternbergs emphasis on practical intell; ppl still tend to score well on tests practical intell is not focused on these tests; neglecting something imp NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE - Gardner formulated a theory of multiple intelligences; rejected idea of single or few primary types of intell intelligences are w/i cultures; potentials that may or may not be activated in the individ depending on the extent to which their culture values the expression of those potentials - Each intell identified
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