Textbook Notes (368,314)
Canada (161,808)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13

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John Bassili

Chapter 13 Motivation: A general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature, strength and persistence of an individuals behaviour Regulatory Behaviour: A behaviour that tends to bring physiological conditions back to normal, thus restoring the condition of homeostasis (eating, drinking, hunting, shivering, building a fire, and putting on a warm coat) Homeostasis: The process by which important physiological characteristics (such as body temperature and blood pressure) are regulated so that they remain at the optimal level System Variable: (the characteristic to be regulated) The variable controlled by a regulatory mechanism (eg. Temperature in a heating system) Set point: the optimum value of the system variable in a regulatory mechanism. The set point for human body temperature, recorded orally, is approximately 37degrees C Detector: In regulatory process, a mechanism that signals when the system variable deviates from its set point Correctional Mechanism: In a regulatory process, the mechanism that is capable of restoring the system variable to the set point Negative Feedback: A process whereby the effect produced by an action serves to diminish or terminate that action. Regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loops Drive reduction hypothesis: The hypothesis that a drive (resulting from physiological need or deprivation) produces an unpleasant state that causes an organism to engage in motivated behaviours. Reduction of drive is assumed to be reinforcing The physiological changes associated with, say, going without food for several hours, produce an unpleasant state called hunger Drive: A condition, often caused by physiological changes or homeostatic disequilibrium, that energizes an organisms behaviour The drive reduction hypothesis of reinforcement has fallen into disfavour for two primary reasons. The first is the drive is almost always impossible to measure. The second problem, we find that many events we experience as reinforcing are also exciting, or drive increasing Optimum-level Hypothesis: The hypothesis that organisms will perform behaviour that restores the level of arousal to an optimum level www.notesolution.com
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