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PSYA02H3 (962)
John Bassili (149)

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John Bassili

CHAPTER 10 ( omit pages 305-308) Language flexible systems that use symbols to express many meanings Most species can communicate with each other but this doesnt mean they have language Conclusion from studies of primates is that true verbal ability is a social behaviour Language is a social behaviour for humans Psycholinguistics a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour SPEECH AND COMPREHENSION Speech does not come to us as a series of individual words; we must extract the words from a stream of speech Recognition of Speech Sounds The auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves The analysis of speech usually begins with its elements or phonemes Phoneme the minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language, such as p - (e.g.) the word pin consists of 3 phonemes: p + i + n Voice-Onset Time the delay between the initial sound of a consonant (such as the puffing sound of the phoneme p) and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords Phonemes are combined to form morphemes Morpheme the smallest unit of meaning in language - (e.g.) the word fastest contains 2 morphemes, fast, which is a free morpheme, because it can stand on its own and still have meaning, and ist, which is a bound morpheme - Bound morphemes cant stand on their own and must be attached to other morphemes to provide meaning Recognition of Words in Continuous Speech: The Importance of Learning and Context We are able to recognize the sounds because of the context Syntax If we want a listener to understand our speech, we must follow the rules of language All languages have a syntax, or grammar Syntactical Rule a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases, clauses, and sentences Implicit memories cannot be described verbally, whereas explicit memories can Syntactical rules are learned implicitly www.notesolution.com
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