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Psychology (9,565)
PSYA02H3 (931)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Oren Amitay

Chapter 11 Notes Intelligence And Thn i king N Intelligencethe general term used to refer toa persons abit to learn and member information, to reognize concepts andtheir relation, and to apply the inr ation to their own behaviour in an adaptive way o Psychologists have pointed out that ay definition oi telligence depens on cultural judgements o Analyses of the typesof skills thatenable people tosurvive broaden thegenerally accepted definitionto include a wider range of abliies N The study of intelligee is dominated bythree main approaches o Differential Approachan approach o t study the intelligence that olves the creation of tests that identify andmeasure ini idual differces in peoplesknowledge and abilities to solverblems E.g. these tests askpeople to defe words, explain prverbs, solve arimetic problems,discover smi ilarities in shs and patterns,and answer questoins about a passage of prse o Developmental Ap proachan approach o t the study of intelence based on the way children learn to pereive, manipulate,and think about the world The most influential prponent of this apprachwasJeanPiag et o Information Process ing Approachan approach to th e study of intelligee that focuses on the typesof skills peopleuse to think ant solve problems N The differential aroach assumes that we can bes t investigatethe nature of illigence by studying the ways inwhich people diffr on tests of ch intellectual abiltiies N Psychologists have evised inteli ence tests thatyield a single number, usually calledanIQ score o But the fact that itlligence is asingle, generalcharacteristic N Some researchers pormotethe idea that someintellectual abilities areompletely independent of one another o E.g. a person can beexcellent at spatialreasoning butpoor at solving verbalanalogies N Charles Spearman po rposed that a perons performance on a test of itllectual abilityis determined by tw o factors o G Factoraccording to spearman, afactor of intellience that isommon toall intellectual tasks; indesapprehension of experienc e, education ofelations, and education of correlats Comprises of threequalitative priciples of cognitn: N Apprehension of experience, educti n of relations,d eduction of correlates N E.g. Lawyer ist Client as Dot r is to? o Apprehension of e xperience referst peoples abilityto perceive and understand what they exp erience o Eduction of relati ns refers to the abt to perceivet e relation betweenone thing and another o Education of corr lates refers toe ability to applya rule of inferred from onecase to a similarcase Thus, this becomes-as doctor is to paint www.notesolution.com o SFactoraccording to spearman, afactor of intellience that is spcific to a particular task N Factor Analysisa statistical procedure thatentifies common factors among groups of tests o A factor analysis vealed three fators in common; A,B,andC.Thenumb ers in the three columns in the table are calledfactor loads; y are somewhat lkie correlation coefficients in thatthey express theegree to whi h a particulat st is relatet a particular factor o Verbal abilityfactor Asverbal subtets makethe most important contribution,along with the other largerfactors being formation, comprehension, an d similarities However factor Aalso has a lot ofmoderate contribuiton from almost alltsts, so this is what ople to prefer geeral intelligence o Factor B is relatedto maintaining information inort-term memor y and manipulating numbers o Factor C is mainlydetermined by bolck design, objectassembly, pture, etc. So is would be spatial abilty Three Factors Derived By Factor Analysis Of ScoresOnWAISSubtests Subtests Factors A B C Information .70 .18 .25 Digit Span .16 .84 .13 Vocabulary .84 .16 .18 Arithmetic .38 .35 .28 Comprehension .63 .12 .24 Similarities .57 .12 .27 Picture Completion .41 .15 .53 Picture Arrangement .35 .18 .41 BlockDesign .20 .14 .73 Object Assembly .16 .06 .59 Digit Symbol .24 .22 .29 N Two major factorsthat Cattell found are fluid intence and crystallized intelence o Fluid Intelligence fg)relatively cule-free tasks, ch as those that mesure the ability to see relins among objectsor the ability tosee patterns in repeagseries of items o Crystallized Intlligence(c ) tasks that reqe people to have acquired iformation from their culture,such as vocabulary, andthe kind ofinformation learned inschools Fluid intelligencrpresents the potential ability torn and solve problms Crystallized inteence is what a person has accmplished through th e use of his or her fluid intence what they hav e learned o According to Cattell,crystallized intelligence des on fluid intelence; fluid supplies the native abilitywhereas experiene with language and exposureo t books and other learning opportunities develop cystallized inteence www.notesolution.com
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