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Chapter 12

Chapter 12

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Oren Amitay

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Chapter 12 Notes Lifespan Development N During the prenatal eriod, the fertilized ovum developsto a fetus, a man in miniature o The crucial fact rs in the fetusvelopment are themothers de i t and physicalhealth; the presence of toxins in e prenatal environment can cause the fetus to be orn with physical and cognitive defects N Timing and experience are two keyelements in normal motor and perc eptual development. For normal development to oc cur, a child mustencounter stimultion from the envir nment during a specific time interval o If stimulation doesnot occur during this periodormal develop ment is impeded, perhaps permanently N In Piagets view,a child passes rugh 4 distinct itllectual change, which coinci e with changes in a childs nervous sytm and with a chils experience,on his or her wayot becomingan adult N According to Vygostky, a childs cognitive devement is stronglyinfluenced byociocultural variabls, especially langage o Information processing models in ognitive deveol pment centre on ow brain maturation influences the development of cognitieprocesses o The violation-of-expctation procedurehas helped usunderstand early c ognition N Attachment is thesocial andemotional bond that develops between an infant and caregiver during infancy. The qualityof attachment depends largelyon the nature ofinfants relationships with their caregivers o Social development du ring childhood is influenced bythe parents sl of child rearing N Evolution appearsot have shaped differences in brain devl pment for mael s and females: o Males tend to havebetter spatial abliities and females tend to havetter communication skills o Socialization processs, such as parentingare involvedin shaping gener-appropriate behaviour. However, most gend er differencesin behaviour ae small N Piaget concludedthat people pass thorugh two stagesof moral development o The first is maed by egocentrism an d adherence ot rules o The second is marked b y empathy N Kohlberg arguedthat moral development ascendsthrough3 levels: o Externally definingmorality, considering how e social systm relates to moralit, and understandingthe principles onwhich moral rulesare based N Adolescence beg ins with sexual maturation, which birngs with itmarked chans in social baviour and the ability to reason o Females tend to bu ild relationshs based on trust, whlie males tend teek socialsupport in becoming more ind ependent o A key aspect of aolescent social deelopment involves forming an identity N Our physical abiliis peak in early adutlhood and dei e gradually thereatr, although adoptinga healthy lifestyle canretard loss of theseabilities o Compared to young adu lts, older adults perform woe on tests of abstct reasoning but better on tests related t general knowel dge and abilis to relate to eerience N Success in love, mily, andwork is the yardstk by which most people measuretheir satisfacti n in life N We recognize nowthat development does not stop atthe end of childh ood; growing older is amatter not only of aging, but lo the changing personally, intl ctually, anocially o Developmental ps ychologists studyboth the similariis and differenes among people as they develop and change o Since they study change, developmental psychologists employ specialstrategiesof research Cross-Sectional St dya study of developm ent in which inividuals of differentagesare compared at the same time www.notesolution.com Longitudinal Studya study of developmen t in which observatins of the same individuals are mpared at differenttimesof their lives o Cross-sectional studiesare usually more conveni nt to carry out,and avoid therblems associated with repeatedly testingor observing the me individual o However they do c ontain a subtle pr blem in interptation PhasesOfTheLifesp an Phase Approximate Age Highlights 1. Prenatal Conception throughbirth Rapid physical development of both nervous sysetm and body 2. Infancy Birth to 2 years Motor developmen;tattachment to p rimary caregier 3. Childhood 18 months to 12 years Increasing abilityto think logicallyand reason absctly; refinement of m otor skills; peer iences 4. Adolescence 13 years to about20 years Thinking and reasoning becomes m ore adult-like; identity crisis; continued eer influences 5. Adulthood 20 years to 65 year Love,committed rela tionship; career;stability and tne decrease in physicalabilities 6. Oldage 65 years and olderot death Reflection on lif work and accomplishments ; physical health deteriorates; prepare for deat; death N Prenatal Periodthe nine monthsbetween conception andbirth. This period is d ivided into three developmental stages: o The zygotic, the embyronic, andthe fetal o During the prenatal period, development depend s on two factors: The genetic contribution from eggand sperm that determines thegenotype of th e new individual; a childvelops from thissingle source ofgenetic instructios Some factor must dierct the mechansims of replication duringthe prenatal periodso that cells are genetical identical will develol ng different paths N X chromosome inac tivation is one ample of this fctor at work; one of two X chromoomes that wom en bear is silencedearly in develment, such that most of the genes o not synthesie the proteins tey normally would o Inactivation ofone X chromoso me isimportant because it limitsthe total amont of proteins produced by geneso lcated on the Xchromosome Without this limit,the metabolism of a developg female would be very differnt from a developing male w( ho only has one X cromosome) o The silenced chormosome is passed ao lng to descendent cells ,but it ains silenced N X chromosome inac tivation is one ample of an epigenetic modification o Epigenetic Modificationa modificationof cell inhertiance that is not duetoalternationsof the DNA sequence its elf N Epigenetic modificatins form a seond factor of earlydevelopment, andillustrate the important oint that the cells cmical environmentmoderates the ex pression of its gentic code o While the genetci information contained withinthe individualremains the sme throughout development, the e rproducingcells become specialied as blood cells,eurons, and muscle cells N Zygote Stagethe first stage of prnatal development, during which thezygote dividesmany times and the internal organs egin to form o This stage lasts forroughly two week, and by the endof the first ek, the zygote onsists of about a hundred cells,with many of thecells arrangig in two layers; e for skin, hair, rous system and sens ory organs, and theother for digesie and respirat ry systems nd glands www.notesolution.com
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