Textbook Notes (363,501)
Canada (158,383)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYA02H3 (932)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Oren Amitay

Chapter 13 Notes Motivation And Emoto in N Motivation-GeneralTerm for a groupof phenomenathat affect the nature , strength, and persistence of an inividuals behvior. o Motivation is proativeforward looking, negatiely can be referas reactive o Likeareinforcement, motivated toperform a beha vior to gain or to oid an aversive event (bad situation) N Biological needs o Basic survivaleeds potent motv iators Organism can dee tct somethingwrong thus activateRegulatory beha viors that bring physiologicalconditions backot normal. Homeostasis-processof regulating imp ortant physiological chacteristics to their optimum el vel. Regulatory behav ior a behavior that tendst bring psychool gical condi ns back to normal, thuse rstoringthe condition of homeostasis e.g. eating, drinki, putting on awarm coat o Regular system has4 essential featurs System Variable-The variable controlled by a regulatory mechan ism N e.g. temperature ina system Set point-The optimum value for a syste m variable o N e.g. the set pointfr human body temperatue r is approximatel 37 C Detector-A mechanism that signals whenthe systemvariable deviates fo rm its set point Correctional Mec hanism-mechanism that iscapable of restor ing the system variable to the setoint A simple exampleof such a regua l tory system is aroom whose temperature is regulated by a themr ostatically controlled hter. The sysm variable is the air temperature of the orom, the deteco t r for this varl is a thermostat.The thermostat can be adju sted so that contacts of a sth will close whenthe temperature falls beolw a preset value*the set point.Closing of theontacts turns on the correctional mechanism : the coils of theater o Negative Feedb ack-Process wherebythe effect prod uced by an actoi n serves to diminish or terminat that action.ex. Heater turni g off) o Drive reduction hypothesis-Hypothesis that adrive(resulting from physiologicalneed) produces an unpleasant state thatcausesanorgan ism to engage in motivated behaviors. (reif rcing)reductionof drive is asmed to be reinforcing. o Drive-A condition, often caused by physiological chages or homeostatic disequilibrium that energizes anorganisms behavior. o Not all drives areomeostasis (biol gical need), sexrive is motivating, t we can survive withoutit, but hungerf r example, seres as a drivef r biological needs. o Drive reduction ypothesis of reinf rcement has fall n into disfavor for two prrya reasons The first is the de is almost alwys impossible tomeasure;there is no wa y to measure drive asto confirm tha t it actually ets, thus the hypothsis cannot be experimentally et sted www.notesolution.com
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