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Chapter 14

Chapter 14

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Oren Amitay

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Chapter 14 Notes Personality N Personalitya particular pattern of behavoi ur and thinkig that prevails acrosstime and situations and differenttes one person from another o The goal is to disver the causes of indiidual differences in behaviour o Research on human pers onality requires two kindsof effort: identifyingpersonality characteristics and etermining the variables that prduce and controlthem N Personality Typesdifferent categories into whichpersonality characteristciscanbeassigned basedon factors suchas developmental experiencesor personal chara cteristics N Personality Traitan enduring personal chara cteristic that veals itself in a patricular pattern of behaviour in a vriety of situations N Rather than focusingon types, many cure rnt investigators prfer to measurethe degree to which an individual xpresses a particular personality trait o E.g. we would classifytwo different type: tall peopleand short people. ote that this is an eitheror cateorization.We all recognize thatheight is bestconceived as a trit a dimension on which pe ople differ al ng a wide rangeof values. Ifwe measure the heights of a large mple of people, we willfind instances along the distrution, from very short to vey tall, with mosteople falling in bt een the extrem es. It is not that people are only eithertall or short (anl gous to personalitytypes), but thateople vary in extent to whichthey show tallness or shortness(analogous to personality tras) N Personality traits arenot simply ptterns of behavi ur; they are fat rs that undelie these patterns and are responsible for thm o Once our personaliyt traits are veloped, they reside in our brain N Gordon Allport beg an his work by identifing all wordsin an unabrided dictionary of the Enlish language that described aspectsof personality,with approximatey l 18,000 such entries o He then conductedanalysis that iden tified those words that descred only stabel personality characteristics o He believed that theconsiderable extentto which traitlabels appear in English shows the importanceof traits in how peoplethink about thems elves and others o He believed that tratis were neuropychological properties that ledt behavioural consistency over timeand contexts b y producing functional similarityin the waya given person interpretsand experiences events i.e. people with a partilar trait react similarcross situations ecause they experience a unique sense of similarity across the situations that gies their feelings, thoughts, andbehaviour o Not all traits haveequal influence; the most poerful of themare cardinal traits Cardinal Traitscharacterize a strong unifying fluenceon a persons behaviour Central Traitsless singular in their influe than cardinal traits, but ture important characteristics of an ini idual Secondary traitsincludes characteristics that hve minor influenceon consistency of behavoiur N Raymond Cattel used A llports list of18,000 traitwords and narrowed it down to 171 adjectes that he believedmadeup the relatv i ely complete st of distinct surfe traits (observable behaviours) o He used factor analysisto identify clters of these tits www.notesolution.com o Cattell analyzed questionnaire resonses from thousa nds of people and eentually identified 16 pesonality factors o He referred to these 16 traits aource traits, beause in his vw, they were the cornerstones uponwhich personaliy t is built N HansEysenckusedfactor analysiso t devise a theoy that identified ree important factors: Extroversion, neuroticism, andpsychoticism o These factors are biolar dimensions;extroversion isthe oppositeof introversion, neuroticism is theopposite of emotoi nal stabilityd psychoticism is the opposite of self-control o Extroversionthe tendency to seekthe company of o therpeople, tobe spontaneous, and to engage in conversation and other ocial behaviours wtih them Introversionthe tendency to avoidthe company ofother people, to be inhibited and cautiou;shyness o Neuroticismthe tendency to be anxious, w orried, and full of guilt Emotional Stabiilty the tendency to be relaxed andat peace wtih oneself o Psychoticismthe tendency to be aggressv ie, egocentric, d anti-socia;l not a mental illness Self-Controlthe tendency to be kind, considerate, andobedient of laws and rules N The original 2 fatrs he originally devised were onlyExtroversion Vs Introversion, and euroticism VsEmotional Stabliity N Eysenck argued that the most i portant aspecst of a persons mperament aredetermined by a combination of thethree dimensoi ns N Eysenckemphasizedthe biological n ature of personaltiy, believing thate functioning of a neural systemol cated in the brainstem produces different levelsof arousal of thecerebral cortex o E.g. consider the inrversion-extroversion dimensoi n,which is basedon an optimum arousal level of the brain Introverts have relaiely highlevels of cortical exctiation, whitroverts have relatively low vels Thus, in order tomaintain the optimum arousal level,t e extrovert requires more external stmi ulation thandoes the introvert N Five Factor Modela theory stating that personaltiy is composed of ie primarydimensions: neuroticism, extrversion, openness,agreeableness,and conscien tiousness(OCEAN). This theory was deveol ped using factoranalyses of tings of the words people useot describe personality charcteristics N Neuroticism, Extaversion, andOpenness Personaltiy Inventory (NE O-PI-R)the instrument used to measure theelements described inthe five-factor model o TheNEO-PI-Rconsiss t of 240 items tt can potentially be used to descie the person being evaluated o Self-ratings on the NO-PI-Ragreeclo sely with the rtings by family members o Also it predicts oer aspects thatseem relatedto personality, likesubjective well-being N Jackson argued thata six-factor modelmay be moreappropriate; he arguedthat the conscientiousness fator in the traditionalie-factor model actually reesents two distict dimensions o Methodicalnessreflectsplanfulness and a needo fr orderliness o Industriousnesscharacterized by perseveran ce andachievement orienta tion www.notesolution.com
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