Textbook Notes (367,976)
Canada (161,540)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15

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Oren Amitay

Chapter 15 Note sSocialPsy chology N Social Psychologythe branch of psychology that stdies our social naturehow theactual, imagined, or i plied presence of others influes our thoughts,felings, and ehaviours N Social Cognitionthe processes ivolved in pereiving, interpreti, and actingon social information N Impression formationthe way in which w e integrate information aout anothers tratis into a coherent senseof who the person is N Schemaa mental framework or body of knowledgethat organizesand synthesizes infom r ation about a person, place,or thing o They are predetemr ined frameworksof knowledge a bout what you thinkof certain things N Central traitspersonality attitudes that orize and influence the intertation of other traits; proposedyAsch o These are automaticassumptions; usualyl key focus ison the warm-cold traitdimension o When one describ es someone who iswarm, it is more likely to eculate that ey are also generous andhappy o Traits such as polite andblunt, which canbe substituted for warm and cold, areknown as peripheral traits o However research sh ows that the neative influenceof the cold trait is stronger than the positive influenceof the warm trait This imbalance may occur because there is already a bias toward positivtiy in impressions of pople N Primacy effectthe tendency to form impressions ofpeople based on the firt informationwe receive about peopl; proposed by Asch o Brown and Bassili sugested that people may generate trait-like lal from observing a persons behaviour, ad that these decriptions maybecome associae t d with almost any stimulus N Self-conceptself-identity. Ones knowledge, feelings,and ideas aboutoneself N Selfa persons ditinct individuality N Self-schemaa mental framework that repre sents and synthesizs information bout oneself; a cognitive structurethat organizes the knowledgefelings, andideas that constite the self- concept; developed by Markus o The self-concept isynamic; it changeswith experience o Markus and Nurius argue that weshould think of ourelves in terms of aworking self- concept that changesaswehavene w experiences; ach of us has many potential selves that we might become, depending on experience o Thinking of ourseles only interms of who we ar atpresent does not accuratelyreflect how we will thinkof ourselves in the futr or the kind of person we mighecome N Cross-culture psyhologya branch of psych ology that studies theeffects of cre on behaviour o Culture is not sonymous with country orcontinent o Cultures differ withrspect to two major classes ofvariablesi logical and ecolical Biological variles include such fatrs as diet, genis, and endemic diseases Ecological includeeography, cli ate, politicystems, popual tion density, religion, culturalmyths, and education www.notesolution.com o Behavioural differnces among peope l of different ct res result in differes in biological and eological varials N Psychologists whodo cross-cultural research strss that culture andpsychologicl processes are fundamentally intetrwined o Fiske, Kitayama,Markus, andNisbett propose thatcultural psych ology strives tobetter understand the psychological pri ciples that inm cultural practice and in tu, how these practices afct various psychological rocesses o A good question from the cultural perspectivefocuses on the fr ation of the sefl- concept, the pereptions one forms ofothers, and theextent to whichothers may influence the deelopment of ones self-oncept o Markus and Kitayama have conc eptualized two cons truals of theelf that reflectsuch cultural differeec The independent cons trual emphasizes the uniqueness of the self, itstnomy from others, and self-relince The interdependent c onstrual emphasizesthe interconnectedness of peope l and the role thatothers play in develping an individuals self-concept o Campbell suggestedthat on the basisof similar reaoning that clart of self-concept might also differ bt een easternand western cu ltures Clarity refers to w confident people arethat they possessparticular attributes, how sharply defined they believethoseattributes are, and hw internally and tmporally consistent they think theirattributes are They proposed tha t high self-conceptclarity more l sely matches an independent construalof self than an intrdependent construal N Attributionthe process b y which people inferthe causes of other poples behaviour o We use schemata thatoften lead us ot the correct conclusions o External factors ituational)people, events, and other stimuli in an iividuals environment thatcan affect his orher thoughts, f elings, attits, and behaviours o Internal factorsdispositional)an individualstraits, needs, andintentions, which can affect his or herought, feelings, attitudes, and baviours N As we get to knowother people, we also learn what to expect of them asindividuals; we learn to characterize pople as frienly, generous, susicious, etc. byobserving theirbehaviour in a variety of situations N Kelley suggested thatwe attribute thebehaviour ofother people to external or internal caes on the basis of tre types of infomation: consensus,distinctiveness, ad consistency o Consensual behavio ur behaviour that is sharedby many people; behaviour tha t is similar from one peron to the next. To the extentthat people engae in the same behaviour, heir behviour is consensual E.g. if you hear Billpraise a new club and haveard many oth er people say te same things (high consensus), you will e tempted to understand Bills praiseas caused by the qualitis of the club (an externalattribution) N If everyone disagres with Bill (w consensus), you wlil be tempted o see Bills rew as somethingpersonal (an internal a ttribution) o Distinctivenessthe extent to which a peron behaves differentyl toward differnt people, events, orother stimuli E.g. if you never heardBill praise a club ashighly as he praisesthe new onei hs behaviour is high indistinctiveness www.notesolution.com
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