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Chapter 9

PSYA02 Chapter 9 terms

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Steve Joordens

PSYA02 Chapter 9 Vocabulary Language: system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning. Grammar: set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages Phonemes: smallest units of sound that are recognizable as speech rather than a random noise Phonological Rules: indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds Morphemes: smallest meaningful units of language Content morphemes: refers to things and events Function morphemes: grammatical functions, such as tying sentences together or indicating time (and, or) Morphological Rules: indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words Syntactical Rules: indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences Deep Structure: refers to the meaning of a sentence Surface Structure: refers to how a sentence is worded Fast Mapping: children map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure, enabling them to learn at this rapid pace Telegraphic Speech: devoid of function morphemes and consist of mostly content words. (Ex: two word sentences) Nativist Theory: language development is best explained as an innate biological capacity Language Acquisition Device (LAD): a collection of processes that facilitate language learning Genetic Dysphasia: a syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence. Aphasia: difficulty in producing or comprehending language Linguistic relativity hypothesis: language shapes the nature of thought (Benjamin Whorf) Concepts: refers to a mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects, events or other stimuli (A concept is an abstract representation, description or definition that serves to designate a class or category of things) (Eleanor Rosch) Family resemblance: features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member. Prototype: Best or most typical member of the category (possesses most (or all) of the most characteristic features of the category. Examplar Theory: holds that we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category Category-specific deficit: an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category though the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbed. Rational-choice theory: We make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the income, and the multiplying the two. Availability Bias: items are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently Heuristics: fast and efficient strategies that may facilitate decision making but do not guarantee that a solution will be reached
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