PSYA02 Chapter 9 Vocabulary
Language: system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to
rules of grammar and convey meaning.
Grammar: set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce
Phonemes: smallest units of sound that are recognizable as speech rather than a random noise
Phonological Rules: indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds
Morphemes: smallest meaningful units of language
Content morphemes: refers to things and events
Function morphemes: grammatical functions, such as tying sentences together or
indicating time (and, or)
Morphological Rules: indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words
Syntactical Rules: indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences
Deep Structure: refers to the meaning of a sentence
Surface Structure: refers to how a sentence is worded
Fast Mapping: children map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure,
enabling them to learn at this rapid pace
Telegraphic Speech: devoid of function morphemes and consist of mostly content words.
(Ex: two word sentences)
Nativist Theory: language development is best explained as an innate biological capacity
Language Acquisition Device (LAD): a collection of processes that facilitate language learning
Genetic Dysphasia: a syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure
of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence.
Aphasia: difficulty in producing or comprehending language
Linguistic relativity hypothesis: language shapes the nature of thought (Benjamin Whorf)
Concepts: refers to a mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related
objects, events or other stimuli (A concept is an abstract representation, description or definition
that serves to designate a class or category of things) (Eleanor Rosch) Family resemblance: features that appear to be characteristic of category
members but may not be possessed by every member.
Prototype: Best or most typical member of the category (possesses most (or all) of the most
characteristic features of the category.
Examplar Theory: holds that we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with
stored memories for other instances of the category
Category-specific deficit: an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category
though the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbed.
Rational-choice theory: We make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen,
judging the value of the income, and the multiplying the two.
Availability Bias: items are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred
Heuristics: fast and efficient strategies that may facilitate decision making but do not guarantee
that a solution will be reached