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PSYA02H3 (961)
John Bassili (149)
Chapter 13

ch.13 detailed textbook notes

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John Bassili

Chapter 13Motivation and EmotionHuman behaviour is inconsistentReasons for inconsistent behaviour are aspects of motivation latin word meaning to moveIn common use motivation refers to driving force that moves us to a particular actionMotivation is a general term for a group of phenomena that affect the nature the strength and the persistence of the behaviour Motivation includes two type of phenomena1 Stimuli that have become associated with pleasant or unpleasant events motivate approach or avoidance behaviours 2 Being deprived of a particular reinforcer increases an organisms preference for a particular behaviourThe nature of motivation and its relation to reinforcementPhysiological aspects of motivationexternal stimuli and internal changes that affect a persons behaviourOur behaviour is motivated by situations that we tend to approach or to avoid situations that are important to usSituations also evoke behaviours that other people can recognize facial expressions changes in posture alterations in tone of voiceThey also affect how we feelsituations that motivate our behaviour also provoke emotionsWhat is MotivationWe are motivated to perform a behaviour to gain or avoid losing a reinforcer or to avoid or escape from a punisherEx Of reinforcer and punisherfood and pain smiles and frownsBiological needsBiological needs can be very potent motivatorsWe all need air food water various vitamins and minerals and protection from extremes in temperatureComplex organisms have physiological mechanisms that detect deficits or imbalances associated with these needs and related regulatory behaviours that bring physiological conditions back to normalEx Eating drinking shiveringHomeostasisthe process of detection and correction which maintains physiological systems at their optimum value stable stateRegulatory system has four essential features1 system variablecharacteristic to be regulated2 set pointoptimum value of the system variable3 Detectormonitors the value of the system variable4 correctional mechanismrestores the system variable to the set pointEx System variabletemperature of room detectorthermostat correctional mechanismcoils of heater set pointpreset temperatureNegative feedbacka process whereby the effect produced by an action serves the diminish or terminate that action regulatory systems are characterized by negative feedback loopsDrive reduction hypothesistheory that stated that biological needs caused by deprivation of the necessities of life are unpleasantHunger serves as a drive energizing an organisms behaviourThe act of eating reduces hunger and this drive reduction is reinforcingNot all drives are based on homeostasis ex Drive associated with sexual behaviourDrive reduction hypothesis has been disfavoured because1 Drive is almost impossible to measure and to prove that it exists2 If we examine our own behaviour we find that many events we experience as reinforcing are also exciting or drive increasingEx A rollercoaster ride doesnt decrease driveThe experiences we really want to repeat the ones we find reinforcing are those that increase not decrease our level of arousalPhysiology of Reinforcement
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