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Chapter 10

Chapter 10.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 10  Binet and Simon created a test to help test the intelligence of school children initially in order to separate children to create special programs o Find a child’s natural intelligence – measure their aptitude for learning independent of their actual achievement  All it told was if the child would be successful at school  RAITO IQ – a stat obtained by dividing a person’s mental age by the persons physical age then multiplying by 100  DEVIATION IQ – a stat obtained by dividing a person’s test score by the average test score of people in the same age group then multiplying by 100 o Cant really compare IQs across age groups this way  Intelligence tests do not “measure” intelligence in terms of high and low – they measure the ability to answer questions and perform tasks that are highly correlated  Stanford-Binet and WAIS are the most widely used tests today  IQ test results are highly correlated with just about every outcome that humans care about o Best predictor of how many years of education will receive: related to status and income o Predicts how will someone will do in their job o Job performance more highly correlated with intelligence than with other factors such as performance during the interview or education o How likely people are to commit crimes or how long you are likely to live o Also predict peoples performance on basic cognitive tasks o Political and religious attitudes: smarter people are more liberal and atheistic  SUMMARY o Intelligence is a mental ability that enables people to direct their thinking, adapt to their circumstances, and learn from their experiences. o Intelligence tests measure responses that are known to be correlated with consequential behaviours that are thought to be made possible by intelligence. o Intelligence tests produce a score known as an intelligence quotient or IQ. Ratio IQ is the ratio of a person’s mental to physical age and deviation IQ is the deviation of a person’s test score from the average score of his or her peers. o Intelligence test scores predict a person’s academic performance, job performance, health, wealth, attitudes, and even basic cognitive abilities.  FACTOR ANALYSIS – a statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors o If there really is a single, general ability called intelligence that enables people to perform a variety of intelligent behaviours, one who has this ability should do well at just about everything  Not true – its made up of a bunch of different things  TWO-FACTOR THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE – every tasks requires a combination of general ability (g) and skills that are specific to the task (s)  Primary mental abilities – word fluency, verbal comprehension, number, space, memory, perceptual speed, reasoning o aka group factors that are between g and s in a 3 level hierarchy  Data Based approach to middle abilities o Carroll: correlations from IQ tests from 500 different studies suggested 8 different middle level abilities  Memory and learning, visual perception, auditory perception, retrieval ability, cognitive speediness, processing speed, crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence o FLUID INTELLIGENCE – the ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences (processing) o CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE – the ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience (information)  Theory based approach – data based doesn’t measure creativity in any sense o Data is incapable of discovering any middle-level ability that hasn’t already been measured o Sternberg – 3 types of intelligence: analytic, creative and practical  Analytic – ability to identify and define problems and to find strategies for solving them (IQ tests measure this)  Creative – ability to generate solutions that other people do not  Practical – the ability to apply and implement these solutions in everyday settings • Some studies suggest theses are independent o PRODIGY - people of normal intelligence who have an extraordinary ability o Gardner – 8 different types of intelligence: linguistic, logical- mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic  Standard IQ tests only measure the first 3, argued that they are the ones western culture values the most • Definition of intelligence varies across regions, religions, cultures o EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE – the ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning  Know what emotions an event will trigger, know how to use their emotions to improve decisions ect  SUMMARY o People who score well on one test of mental ability usually score well on others, which suggests that there is a property called g (general intelligence). o People who score well on one test of mental ability don’t always score well on others, which suggests that there are properties called s (specific abilities). o Research reveals that between g and s are several middle-level abilities. o The data-based approach suggests that there are eight middle-level abilities. o The theory-based approach suggests that there may be middle-level abilities
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