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PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 13

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 13  Ordinary people who are socially isolated are more likely to become depressed, become ill and die prematurely – as bad as obesity or smoking  Extended isolation can induce symptoms of psychosis  SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY – the study of the causes and consequences of sociality  Only 4 species have become ultra-social – form societies in larger numbers to divide labour and cooperate for mutual benefit o Hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps), termites, naked mole rats, humans  AGGRESSION – behaviour whose purpose is to harm another o Used to get resources by animals  FRUSTRATION-AGRESSION HYPOTHESIS – animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated o Cause of aggressive behaviour is negative affect  When animals feel bad, then that makes them feel bad increases aggression – when you feel bad you are more likely to get pissed • Aggression on hot days  Gender is the single best predictor of aggression o Socialization is not the only reason for male aggression – highly correlated to the presence of testosterone  Testosterone promotes aggression by making people feel concerned with their status, powerful and confident in themselves  Testosterone lowers peoples sensitivity to signs of threat, makes people walk more purposefully and focus more directly when they talk o Elicit aggression by challenging male status or dominance  ¾ of all murders as status competitions or contests to save face  High self esteem = aggression: see more threats to their status o Women only slightly less likely to aggress when provoked, much less likely when unprovoked  More likely than men to aggress by causing social harm  We are culturally a lot less violent than we were in the past o Southern part of the US – men are taught to react aggressively when they feel their status has been challenged – more prevalent violent crime there  People learn by example – violent media makes us more aggressive  COOPERATION – behaviour by tow or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit o Cooperation is risky – prisoner’s dilemma o Why pay taxes when others will pay theirs and you can reap the benefits?  Wason Card-Selection o Card selection that shows people can’t think abstractly – better understood through concrete example – alcohol vs coke – spot the cheater  Ultimatum game – reject the offer that you consider unfair – they would rather get nothing that get cheated o People will pay to punish someone who has treated them unfairly  GROUP – a collection of people who have something in common that distinguished them from others  PREJUDICE – a positive or negative evaluation of another person absed on their group membership  DISCRIMINATION – a positive or negative behaviour toward another person based on their group membership o Ingroup bias – positive discrimination towards those in your group even when the groups seem fairly arbitrary  Group made decisions rarely do better than the best member would have done and often do worse o Don’t fully capitalize on the expertise of their members – give more weight to the one with the most power or the most talkative vs the most knowledgeable. Don’t spend enough time discussing relevant info that not everyone know. Reluctant to “rock the boat”  Groups sometimes do terrible things that none of the members would do alone o DEINDIVIDUALIZATION – when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values  Being in a group takes attention away from ourselves making it easier to make decisions that go against our personal values o DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY – occurs when individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting in the same way  One of the best predictors of a person’s general well-being is the quality and extent of their social relationships and group memberships o Those excluded are anxious, lonely, depressed, increased risk for illness, early death  Exclusion activates areas of the brain that are normally activated by physical pain o Group membership = identity – key to happiness and well-being  ALTRUISM – behaviour that benefits another without benefiting oneself o KIN SELECTION – the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives  Cooperating with relatives isn’t altruistic o RECIPROCAL ALTRUISM – behaviour that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the near future o Humans can be altruistic – anon donations to charity, we give tips in restaurants, hold doors for random people, organ donors  ---------------------------------------------------  Women are more selective than men when it comes to sexual partners o Sex is costlier for women than for men – men make billions of sperm and conceiving a child has no significant physical costs to them; women have a lot more at risk  Culture can push men to be “playboys” and can classify the same type of women as “sluts” the costs are higher for women o Less selective when culture lowers the costs of sex for women – providing effective birth control, promote financial independence ect. o When men are looking for a long term relationship – they become just as selective as women  One of the best predictors of any kind of interpersonal relationship is the physical proximity of the people involved o We can only select our romantic partners from the pool of people that we meet o People work hard to like those with whom they expect to have interaction  MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT – the tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking  People can misinterpret physiological arousal as a sign of attraction – a swaying bridge counts as physiological arousal  First year dance experiment – physical attraction was the only attribute that influenced the students feelings of attraction o Online dating, physical attraction is a main component  Beautiful people are treated better in life o Have more opportunities to socialize and in general o Mothers treat attractive children more affectionately  Men are more likely to acknowledge this fact  Beauty differs across cultures: below are common norms though o Body Shape – Inverted triangle for men, and hourglass for women o Symmetry – bilateral symmetry – faces are especially beautiful when their features approximate the avg human population o Age – female more attractive when they have immature features, male more attractive with more mature features  Reasons for the above o Body shape – body shape is an indicator of male dominance and female fertility o Symmetry – symmetry and averageness are signs of genetic health o Age – younger women more fertile – ability to produce kids, older men have more resources – ability to raise kids  People tend to approach, date and marry someone who is about attractive as they are  We are most attracted to those who are generally similar to us on most psychological dimensions o Marry those with similar levels of education, religious backgrounds, ethnicities, socioeconomic status, and personalities o It easy to interact with people who are similar to us – if you share the same beliefs you can reasonably expect them to like you for the same reason  Being liked is a strong source of attraction  Extraordinary people threaten our self-esteem  Marriage used to be for reasons other than romance in the past – some still see it that way today – pay back depts., political unions ect.  1/3 of all marriages in 2008 ended in divorce  PASSIONATE LOVE – an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual attraction o What brings people together – rapid onset, peaks quickly and diminishes quickly  COMPASSIONATE LOVE – an experience involving affection, trust and concern for a partner’s well-being o What keeps people together o Arranged marriages by parents seek to bypass passionate love and find partners who have high potential for compassionate love?  SOCIAL EXCHANGE – is the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favourable ratio of costs to benefits o COMPARISON LEVEL – cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship o EQUITY – a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of the two partners are roughly equal  Relationships as an investments and the resources are time money and affection  -----------------------------------------------------  Survival and reproduction require scarce resources, and aggression and cooperation are two ways to get them.  Aggression often results from negative affect, which can be caused by almost anything—
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