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Psychology (9,569)
PSYA02H3 (932)
Chapter 15

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 15 – Treatment of Psych Disorders  1 in 5 people suffers from some type of mental disorder o Personal Costs – cant do certain things because you are afflicted by disorder o Social – it begins to break down your ability to maintain even basic social contact o Financial Costs – treatment is expensive  Why people do not seek treatment o Do not realize that the disorder need to be treated – people don’t take it as seriously as physical illness  People believe that it is just mind over matter – mental disorder is just weakness? o There may be barriers to treatment, such as beliefs and circumstances that keep people from getting help  Some people think that they should do it themselves lest they be judged by others  Shit be expensive or waiting lists be long as fuck, or the place with the treatments suck  Men don’t want the help – seen as weak o Don’t know where to get the help  So many different places and so many different types of treatment  Cognitive and behavioural therapy best for anxiety yet some people receive other forms of treatment?  --------------------------------------------  Mental illness is often misunderstood, and because of this, it too often goes untreated.  Untreated mental illness can be extremely costly, affecting an individual’s ability to function and also causing social and financial burdens.  Many people who suffer from mental illness do not get the help they need; they may be unaware that they have a problem, they may face obstacles to getting treatment, or they simply may not know where to turn.  Treatments include psychotherapy, which focuses on the mind, and medical and biological methods, which focus on the brain and body.  ---------------------------------------------  PSYCHOTHERAPY – in interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with the goal of providing support or relief from the problem o ECLECTIC PSYCHOTHERAPY – a form of psychotherapy that involves drawing on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the client and the problem – find a solution for the problem at hand o Also Psychodynamic, Cognitive, Humanistic/existential, behavioural  PSYCHODYNAMIC PSYCHOTHERAPIES – explore childhood events and encourage individuals to use this understanding to develop insight into their psychological problems – overcoming psychological problems is to develop insight into unconscious memories o Psychoanalysis assumes that humans are born with aggressive and sexual urges that are repressed during childhood development though the use of defence mechanisms – you want to bring these repressed conflicts to light to see why you have issues  3-6 years, 4-5 sessions per week: image of a shrink o Developing Insight – Freud  Free Association – client reports every thought that enters the mind without censorship or filtering: therapist looks for recurring themes  Dream Analysis – dreams treated as metaphors for unconscious conflicts that the therapist helps the person understand, relive and associate with a dream  Interpretation – decipher the meaning behind what the person doe, used during free association and dream analysis – possible meanings are suggested to the client – sometimes just BS  Analysis of Resistance – ‘trying on’ different interpretations of the clients thoughts and actions until a person find something acceptable – if you shift away from idea it might be the correct one • RESISTANCE – a reluctance to cooperate with treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material o TRANSFERENCE – when the analyst begins to assume a major significant in the client’s life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious fantasies – may enhance interpretations of the person o Carl Jung – culturally determined symbols and myths that are shared among all people that could serve as a basis for interpretation beyond sex or aggression – collective unconscious o Alfred Adler – emotional conflicts are the result of perceptions of inferiority and that psychotherapy should help people overcome problems resulting form inferiors social status, sex roles and discrimination o Klein – primitive fantasies of loss and persecution o INTERPERSONAL PSYCHOTHERAPY (IPT) – a form of PT that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships.  Focus treatment on the person’s interpersonal behaviours and feelings: grief, role disputes, role transitions, interpersonal deficits  Face-to-face with client, less intensive (once a week, for a few weeks)  BEHAVIOUR THERAPY – assumes that disorder behaviour is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviours into more constructive ones o Eliminating unwanted behaviours – operant conditioning can show that behaviour can be predicted its consequences  Less enforcing or more punishing consequences can eliminate behaviour o Promoting desired behaviours – TOKEN ECONOMY – given tokens for desired behaviours which they can later trade for rewards  Learned behaviours not maintained when reinforcements are removed – good in class, ass on the playground o Reducing Unwanted Emotional Responses  EXPOSURE THERAPY – involves confronting an emotion- arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response • Exposure through response prevention – hand washing OCD, leave your hands dirty for a few hours  SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION – a procedure in which a client relaxes all muscles in the body while imaging being in increasingly frightening situations  COGNITIVE THERAPY – focuses on helping a person identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world. o Classical conditioning – bitten by dog as kid = dog phobia: you associate dogs with pain is the meaning and thus see all dogs as potentially harmful – must recognize the meaning. o COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING – involves teaching clients to questions the automatic beliefs, assumptions, and predictions that often lead to negative emotions and to replace negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs. o MINDFULNESS MEDITIATION – teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment; to be aware of their thoughts, feelings and sensations; and to detect symptoms before they become a problem  COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY – blend of cognitive and behavioural therapeutic strategies o Acknowledges that there may be behaviours that people cannot control through rational thought but also that there are ways of helping people think more rationally when thought does play a role o CBT is transparent in that nothing is withheld from the client – at the end they have a good understanding of what they did and how to make the desired changes o Good for unipolar depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and childhood depressive and anxiety disorders  Humanistic and Existential Therapies – psych problems stem from feelings of alienation and loneliness – failure to reach one’s potential or find meaning in life o PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY (client centered) – assumes that all individuals have a tendency towards growth and this growth can be facilitated by acceptance and genuine reactions from the therapist  Each person makes their own goals for therapy and sets frequency of the therapy  Basically repeat shit and eventually the person will realize what they will have to do themselves  Congruence – openness and honesty in the therapeutic relationship ensuring the therapist communicates the same message at all levels  Empathy – continuous process of trying to understand the clients way of thinking and feeling  Unconditional positive regard – non-judgemental and shit o GESTALT THERAPY – has the goal of helping the client become aware of their own thoughts, behaviours, experiences and feelings and to own or take responsibility of them  Encouraged to be all warm and receptive and shit  Talk to empty chair to let out emotions  GROUP THERAPY o Couples therapy – couple is seen together in therapy to work on problems usually arising within the relationship  Problems arise in the interaction and not just the problems one person has o Family therapists believe that problem behaviours exhibited by a particular family member are the result of a dysfunctional family o GROUP THERAPY – a technique in which multiple participants work on their individual problems in a group atmosphere  Can relate your issues to others, helpful if you are socially isolated, and shows you that you are not the only one suffering  Can be hard to get together though  Self-he
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