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PSYA02H3 (932)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11.

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 11 – Intelligence and Thinking - Intelligence: the general term used to refer to a person’s ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behavior in an adaptive way - Three main approaches when studying intelligence: differential, developmental, and information processing - Differential approach: favors the development of tests that identity and measure individual differences in people’s abilities to solve problems, particularly those that use skills important I the classroom o Approach to study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s knowledge and abilities to solve problems - Developmental approach: studies the ways in which children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world - Information processing approach: focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve various types of problems Theories of Intelligence - Intelligence tests yield a single number (IQ), however this doesn’t mean that there is only one strand of intelligence o Those measuring athletic ability would make people run, jump, weight lift, etc; they would be measuring AQ (athletic quotient) - Three theories of intelligence: Spearman’s two-factor theory, information processing theory, and neuropsychological theory - Spearman’s two-factor theory o Charles Spearman – a person’s performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by two factors:  G factor: factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks; includes apprehension of experience, eduction (process of drawing, or bringing out- of figuring out from given facts) or relations, and eduction of correlates  The general factor; comprising three qualitative principles of cognition  Apprehension of experience: refers to people’s ability to perceive and understand what they experience  Eduction of relations: refers to the ability to perceive the relation between two words (lawyer and client)  Eduction of correlates: refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case (person whom a doctor works for is obviously a patient)  S factor: factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task/ test - Factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests o Common factors in these tests would be particular abilities that affect people’s performance on more than one test o Determines which sets of tests forms a group  If each person’s score on several intelligence tests correlate well with one another, the tests or subjects measure the same factor o Factor loadings: express the degree to which a particular test is related to a particular factor - Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – WAIS - Louis Thurstone extracted 7 factors when performing a factor analysis o Verbal comprehension o Verbal fluency o Number o Spatial visualization o Memory o Reasoning o Perceptual speed - Catell and Horn o Second-order factor  Fluid intelligence f g ); crystallized intellicence ( g ) o Fluid intelligence: relatively culture-free tasks such as those that measure the ability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items  Closely related to a person’s native capacity for intellectual performance;; represents a potential ability to learn and solve problems o Crystallized intelligence: tasks that require people to have acquired information from their culture, such as vocabulary and the kind of information learned in schools  What a person has accomplished through the use of his or her fluid intelligence- what he or she has learned (Catell) o Horn; Both factors are learned but are also based to a degree on hereditf. G is based on casual learning. c is based on cultural, school learning o Catell; c depends on G f fluid intelligence supplies the native ability, whereas experience with language and exposure to books, school, and other learning opportunities develop crystallized intelligence - Information Processing Theory of Intelligence o Robert Steinberg – degree of success that people achieve in life is strongly affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze and manage their unique combinations of strengths and weaknesses o Devised a ‘triarchic’ (ruled by 3) theory of intelligence that derives from the information processing approach used by many cognitive psychologists o The three parts of the theory deal with three aspects of intelligence  Analytic, creative and practical  These three contribute to make successful intelligence  Successful intelligence: ability to: analyze one’s strengths and weaknesses; use the strengths to greatest advantage; minimize the impact of weakness by overcoming or compensating for them o Analytical intelligence: mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks  Main components: verbal ability and deductive reasoning  Serve 3 functions o Metacomponents (transcending components): are the processes by which people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, select a strategy for solving it, and allocate their resources; decision making o Performance components: processes actually used to perform the task o Knowledge acquisition components: person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant information and integrating it with what he or she already knows o Creative intelligence: ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve familiar problems automatically  Sternberg believes that those with a higher creative intelligence respond well with this component  Tasks that use fluid intelligence demand the novel approaches, where as tasks that use crystallized intelligence demand mental processes that have become automatic  After encountering a problem several times, you are able to automate the procedure so that similar problems can be solved without much thought, freeing mental resources for more demanding work o Practical intelligence: intelligence reflecting the behaviors that were subject natural selection in our evolutionary history  Adaption: fitting oneself into ones environment by developing useful skills and behaviors  Selection: finding one’s own niche in the environment  Shaping: changing the environment o Analytic intelligence  Metacomponents (planning); performance components (lexical access); knowledge acquisition components (ability to acquire vocabulary words) o Creative intelligence  Novel tasks; automated tasks o Practical intelligence  Adaptation (adapting to environment); selection (finding a suitable environment); shaping (changing the environment) - Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence o Gardner – multiple intelligences; situated within cultures  Each intelligence is a result of evolution o 8 intelligences  Verbal-linguistic; ability to use language, sensitivity to meanings and sounds of words  Logical-mathematical; ability to reason logically and to process mathematical equations  Visual-spatial; ability to understand patterns in closed or open spaces  Naturalist; ability to understand patterns in nature  Bodily-kinesthetic; ability to control the body precisely  Musical; ability to understand and create musical patterns  Intrapersonal; ability to understand the self, including one’s skills, emotions, thoughts, and intentions  Interpersonal; ability to recognize differences among people, to understand their emotions, intentions, and motivations th o 9 potential intelligence – existential; intelligence of big questions o Syllogism: a logical construction that contains a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. The major and minor premise are assured to be true, and the truth of the conclusions is to be evaluated by deductive reasoning  Measures deductive knowledge Intelligence Testing - 2200 BC – civil servants = Mandarins - Sir Francis Galton – biologist and statistician o Investigator of individual differences in ability o Cousin = Charles Darwin o Family differences in ability; intellectual abilities were heritable o People with low ability were poor at making sensory discriminations o Anthropometric (human-measuring) Lab  Tested more than 9000 people on 17 variables o Correlation: the degree to which variability in one measure is related to variability in another - Karl Pearson – Developed logic of twin studies and adaptive parent studies - Gilbert – proposed that you could measure intelligence simply by placing a ruler perpendicular against your face o If the ruler is bigger than your head, you are weak in reasoning and deductive facilities and vice versa - Alfred Binet – first modern intelligence tests - David Wechsler devised 2 intelligence tests – one for adults and one for children - Binet – Simon scale: intelligence tes
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