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PSYA02H3 (961)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 14 – Personality The Psychodynamic Approach - Psychodynamic: a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason, and conscience - The Development of Freud’s Theory - Published a seminal book with Josef Breuer – Studies on Hysteria o Anna O. suffered from many symptoms including loss of speech, disturbances in vision, headaches, and paralysis and loss of feeling in her right arm o Anna was asked to think about the time when her symptoms had started  Started when she was unable to express a strongly felt emotion  While under hypnosis, she experienced these emotions which gave her relief from her symptoms  Presumed that the release of emotions eliminated her symptoms  This wasn’t true - Freud concluded that all human behavior is motivated by instinctual drives, which, when activated, supply ‘psychic energy’ o This energy is aversive because the nervous system seeks a state of quiet equilibrium o If something prevents the psychic energy caused by activation of a drive from being discharged, psychological disturbances will result - Unconscious: inaccessible part of the mind o Still exert control over conscious thoughts and actions - The mind represses the memories of traumatic events, most of which are potentially anxiety- provoking, from being consciously discovered o Iceberg metaphor o Only the tip is visible above water, the much larger and more important part of it is submerged - Structures of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego - The mind consists of unconscious, preconscious, and conscious elements - Unconscious includes mental events of which we are not aware - Conscious entails mental events of which we are aware - Preconscious involves mental events that may become conscious through effort - Id: the unconscious reservoir of libido, the psychic energy that fuels instincts and psychic processes o Operations are completely unconscious - Libido: an insistent, instinctual force that is unresponsive to the demands of reality; the primary source of motivation - Pleasure principle: the rule that the id obeys: obtain immediate gratification, whatever form it may take - For Freud, the id was a source of unrestrained, uncivilized, and ultimately harmful behavior - Ego: serves as the general manager of personality, making decisions regarding the pleasures that will be pursued at the ids demand, the person’s safety requirements, and the moral dictates of the superego that will be followed o Thinking, planning and protective self; controls and integrates behavior - Reality principle: tendency to satisfy the id’s demands realistically, which almost always involves compromising the demands of the id and superego o Ability to delay gratification of a drive until an appropriate goal is located o Uses self defense mechanisms - Superego: repository of an individual’s moral values, divided into the conscience – the internalization of a society’s rules and regulations; and the ego-ideal – the internalization of one’s goals - Conscience: the internalization of the rules and restrictions of society; it determines which behaviors are permissible and punishes wrongdoing with feelings of guilt - Ego-ideal: internalization of what a person would like to be – his or her goals and ambitions - Primary drives – sexual instinctual and aggressive instinctual - Internalized prohibitions – rules of behavior learned in childhood that protect the person from the guilt he or she would feel if the instinctual drives were allowed to express themselves - Manifest content: (of a dream) the apparent storyline of a dream; disguised version of its latent content - Latent content: the hidden message of a dream, produced by the unconscious o Usually be related to unexpressed wishes generated by instinctual drives - Free association: a method of Freudian analysis in which an individual is asked to relax, clear his or her mind of current thoughts, and then report all thoughts, images, perceptions, and feelings that come to mind - Defense Mechanisms - The ego contains defense mechanisms – mental systems that become active whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with internalized prohibitions of the superego - Repression: mental force responsible for actively keeping potentially threatening or anxiety- provoking memories from being consciously discovered - Reaction formation: involves replacing an anxiety-provoking idea with its opposite o Involves behaving in a way that is the opposite of how one really feels because the true feelings produce anxiety - Projection: one’s unacceptable behaviors or thoughts are attributed to someone else o Denying one’s own unacceptable id-based desires and finding evidence of these desires in other’s behavior - Sublimation: involves redirecting pleasure-seeking or aggressive instincts toward socially acceptable goals - Rationalization: justifies an unacceptable action with a more acceptable, but false, excuse o Inventing an acceptable behavior that is really being performed for another, less acceptable reason - Conversion: involves converting an intrapsychic conflict into a physical form, such as blindness, deafness, paralysis, or numbness o ‘hysteria’ - Freud’s Psychosexual Theory of Personality Development - Personality development involves passing through several psychosexual stages of development o Stages that involve seeking pleasure from specific parts of the body called erogenous zones - Freud used the term sexual to refer to physical pleasures and the many ways an individual might seek to gratify an urge for such pleasure – did not use the term to refer to adult sexual feelings or orgasmic pleasure - Fixation: the continued attachment of psychic energy to an erogenous zone due to incomplete passage through one of the psychosexual stages o Arrested development due to failure to pass completely through an earlier stage of development - Oral stage: the first of Freud’s sexual stages, during which the mouth is the major erogenous zone due to reduction of the hunger drive - Anal stage: second of Freud’s sexual stages, during which the primary erogenous zones is the anus due to pleasure derived from vacating a full bowel - Phallic stage: third psychosexual stage; primary erogenous zone is the genital area, and pleasure derives from both direct genital stimulation and general physical contact o Opposite-sex parents become the focus of sensual pleasure for children during this stage  Oedipus complex and Electra complex o Identification – children of both sexes turn their attention to their same-sex parent and begin to imitate their same-sex parent in many ways and, in a sense, idolize them - Latency period: period between phallic stage and genital stage during which sexual urges are submerged o Onset of puberty follows - Genital stage: final o Freud’s psychosexual stages (from puberty through adolescence); adolescent develops adult sexual desires - Further Development of Freud’s Theory: The Neo-Freudians - Carl Jung o Freud called him ‘his adopted eldest son, his crown prince and successor’ o Libido was a positive creative force that propels people toward personal growth o Forces other than the id, ego, and superego,, such as the collective unconscious, form the core of personality o Ego was totally conscious and contained the ideas, perceptions, emotions, thoughts, and memories of which we are aware o Collective unconscious: the part of the unconscious that contains memories and ideas inherited from our ancestors over the course of evolution o Archetypes: universal thought forms and patterns that Jung believed resided in the collective unconscious  i.e. shadow is the archetype containing basic instincts that allow us to recognize aspects of the world such as evil, sin, and carnality  not stored images or ideas – we are not born with a picture of evil stored somewhere in our brains – but inherited dispositions to behave, perceive, and think in certain ways - Alfred Adler o Feelings of inferiority play the key role in personality development o Striving for superiority: motivation to achieve one’s potential. Adler argued that striving for superiority is born from our need to compensate for o
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