Textbook Notes (363,103)
Canada (158,195)
Psychology (9,568)
PSYA02H3 (931)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 11: Shortcut stimulus control methods pg. 154-165 Summary • prompts are presented with SD during training • prompts: o response  physical guidance  verbal  gestural  modeling o stimulus  pictorial  auditory  environmental • removed in gradual manner once behavior has ben learned • allows stimulus control to be transferred to the SD • fading done through decreasing assistance and increasing assistance methods • delay prompting used only for response prompts o involved constant or progressive delays across trials • steps in fading are usually small o make few or no errors KEY TERMS • prompts • response prompts • physical guidance prompt • verbal prompts • gestural prompts • modeling prompts • stimulus prompts • pictorial prompts • auditory prompts • environmental prompts • fading Prompts: • stimuli that supplement the desired or normal discriminative stimulus for a correct behavior, increasing the likelihood that the response will occur and receive reinforcement • reminds us to perform a behavior • 2 categories: o response prompts o stimulus prompts Response prompts: • supplement to discriminative stimulus to induce performance of target behavior Physical guidance prompt: • manually moving part of the person’s body through the desired action or sequence • teach simple tasks to children • learn or improve complex skills Verbal prompts: • words that induce a specific behavior • can understand words in the prompt • learn new skills; especially in speaking • instructions: oral or written Gestural prompts • physical motions that target person previously learned as SD for specific behaviors • finger to lips = be quiet Modeling prompts • shortcut method • use antecedents with stimulus control • learn and perform new or infrequent responses • watch what others do • antecedent is the modeled action • target person sees and learns when to perform the behavior and what consequences are likely to follow • often combined in training programs • also used in business and industry to teach workers skills Stimulus prompts • alter normal antecedent in physical way • change something about the SD (within-stimulus prompt) or add another stimulus (extra-stimulus prompt) to increase likelihood that the person will respond correctly • can involve pictures, sounds, or environmental alterations Case study: three step prompting with Ned • use prompts in progressive manner o three step prompting procedure o verbal prompt o modeling o physical guidance prompts • prompts become increasingly intrusive or controlling • Ned has autism • Writing, dressing, self-care tasks • If didn’t comply, same prompt used again • Compliance increased to 87% • Usually only one request • Compliance generalized to another teacher Pictorial prompts • Drawings • Paintings • Photographs • Vide
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