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Chapter 12

Midterm Notes Chapter 12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
Midterm Notes Chapter 12 – Lifespan Development Cross-sectional study: study of development in which individuals of different ages are compared at the same time Longitudinal study: study of development in which observations of the same individuals are compared at different times of their lives Cross-sectional take less time and avoid problem of person becoming familiar with test but have a slight concrete problem PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT Prenatal period: nine months between conception and birth divided into zygotic, embryonic, fetal Epigenetic changes – modification of cell inheritance that is not due to alterations of DNA sequence itself Examples: way DNA molecule is folded within proteins, chemical changes in structure of nucleotide cytosine, complex modifications in the way DNA is mapped into protein synthesis Stages of Prenatal Development Zygote stage: first stage of prenatal development during which it divides many times and the internal organs start to form -lasts two weeks Embryonic Stage: second stage, begins at 2 weeks and ends at 8 weeks after conception, during which heart begins to beat, brain starts to function and most major body structures begin to form -because many changes rely on delicate chemical balance, most susceptible to external influences. These substances are Teratogens: substances, agentsrdevents that can cause birth defects -beginning of sexual development occurs, 23 chromosome pair determines the sex; early in development, embryo develops gonads that will become ovaries or testes -If testes present, begin to secrete androgens: primary class of sex hormone in male, primary is testosterone -these hormones bring about development of male internal sex organs, penis and scrotum, and therefore are very crucial; women development do not need hormones Fetal Stage: third stage, lasts 7 months, beginning with appearance of bone tissue and ending with birth -2 months 4cm 30g, 3 months 8cm 90g (development of major organs complete and bones/muscle beginning to develop, may show kicking) -4 months 15cm 170g [sleeping and awake], 6 months 30cm 700g, -7 month critical, if prematurely born at this point, fair chance of surviving, last two months gains weight 250g a week, on average 50cm long and 3.5kg, ready to be born Threats to Normal Prenatal Development Mother’s diet most important, if malnourished, abnormal fetus nervous system Tetracycline (antibiotic) can cause irregularities in bones and discoloration of teeth If cocaine, high risk of premature birth, low birth weight, smaller than normal head Smoking – increased miscarriage rate, low birth weight, increased chance of premature, increased change of c- section -Can also cause lowered arousal levels in newborns, and uncommon birth defects such as cleft palate Alcohol – pre and post natal growth deficits, deformations of eyes and mouth, low brain mass, central nervous system abnormalities, heart deformation – collectively= fetal alcohol syndrome PHYSICAL AND PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Infant and toddler applies to babies up to age of 2 years Motor Development Follows distinct pattern dictated by maturation of muscles and nervous system At birth most important movements are reflexes – when touched on the head, will turn in that direction, when against lips, will begin to suck, when milk or liquid enters mouth, will make swallowing movements all automatically Development of motor skills requires maturation of child’s nervous system and practice Amount of growth of nervous system (considerable growth in first several months) is associated with IQ later Important changes in brain structure happen through lifespan as result of experience Perceptual Development Kisilevsky – found playing sound of mother’s voice outside her abdomen increased heart rate of fetus, while strangers did not Infants develop all of their senses while within the womb and show examples of such once outside Form Perception Salapatek – suggests age of one or two months babies do not perceive complete shapes, their scanning strategy is limited to fixation on a few parts At three months, shows signs of pattern recognition, and at 4/5 months can distinguish similar faces Distance Perception Ability to perceive 3D objects comes at early age Gibson and Walk – Placed 6month old babies on a visual cliff, babies would not dare crawl over it Infants require retinal disparity at early age to experience depth perception Fawcett, Wang, Birch – examined children with crossed vision to see when loss of disparity most affects stereopsis, worst influence at 3.5 months, but can still affect even at 4 years Critical and Sensitive Periods in Perceptual Development Critical period: specific time in development during which certain experiences must occur for normal development to occur If infants don’t have opportunity to interact with caregivers during first two years, cognitive development impaired Sensitive Period: period of time during which certain experiences have more of an effect on development than they would have if they occurred at another time Example – acquisition of a second language, learned more easily in childhood COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD The Importance of a Responsive Environment One of first things to learn is that baby’s actions have effect the events in the environment Watson and Ramey – presented three sets of infants with a mobile 10min/day/14 days -sensor under the pillow under baby’s head and mobile above face. For one group it moved whenever activated switch, the other remained stationary, the third activated randomly on its own. -tested again after with the active switch in all three groups, those who had already learned did the same, those who didn’t did not learn to do so Being able to extend oneself and affect objects and people are important aspects of personal and social functioning -example of J.F.; J.F. seemed incapable of accepting typical attachment between child and parent that she was denied the first 3 years -Faulder found that her emotional maturity was that of an 18 month old -by 10 years old, house was living hell, diagnosed with autism, ADHD, attachment disorder, tourettes Nelson suggested at times the brain’s development requires stimulation that normal childhood provides and without it, the brain lacks direction for further development The Work of Jean Piaget Viewed cognitive development as maturational process Thought completion of each period with corresponding abilities, is prerequisite for entering the next Important to this theory is operation: a logical or math rule that transforms an object or concept into something else Suggested that as children develop they acquire mental representations or frameworks used for understanding and dealing with the world and solving problems -Proposed that schemata are first defined in terms of objects and actions but later become basis of concrete and abstract concepts that constitute adult knowledge Infants acquire schemata through their environment, two processes help them adapt, assimilation and accommodation Assimilation: the process by which new info about the world is incorporated into existing schemata Accommodation: the process by which existing schemata are modified or changed by new experiences Piaget’s Four Periods of Cognitive Development Argued at key points, the two processes fail to adjust adequately to the child’s knowledge of the world At this point through equilibrium, teh schemas are radically reorganized Equilibrium: process that reorganizes schema These key points divide cognitive development into four periods: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational What is learned in one enables them to progress to the next Sensorimotor Period Sensorimotor period: Birth – 2 years, first period, marked by orderly progression of increasingly complex cognitive development: reflexes, permanence, rough approximation of causality, imitation, symbolic thinking -closely tied to external stimuli Until 6 months, children do not know objet permanence In last half of first year, if object hidden, they will actively search for it, and in second year, will search for object in last place the saw it hidden Can only keep track of change in a hiding place they can see The Preoperational Period Preoperational Period: 2-7, second period, 4-5 year transition between first being able to think symbolically and being able to think logically. Become increasingly able to speak meaningful sentences Schemas are reorganized around words Egocentrism: self centeredness; preoperational children can see the world from only their perspective i.e. I can’t see you so you can`t see me does not permit invertible operations, cannot conceptualize that a stack of pennies that was spread out can be reversed, thought to be radically changed Children still fall prey to conservation of mass, length and number The Period of Concrete Operations Period of concrete operations: 7-11, third period, children come to understand conservation principle and other concepts such as categorization The end of this marks transition into adolescence Characterized by being able to perform logical analysis, increased ability to empathize, and understanding of more complex cause-effect relations If shown stick A is bigger than stick B, and stick B is bigger than stick C, they can say Stick A is bigger than C, but only if they seen it, cannot do it abstractly The Period of Formal Operations Period of formal operations: begins at age 11, fourth period, individuals become capable of more formal kinds of abstract thinking and hypothetical reasoning Without exposure to classes in junior high and high school, people do not develop formal operational thinking Evaluation of Piaget`s Contributions Enormous positive impact, stimulating interest and research in developmental psychology and educational psychology One criticism is terms not operationally defined, up to interpretation and not experimental Vygotsky`s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development Agreed that experience with physical world is important factor, disagreed that it is the whole story; argued culture held a significant role Further believed children`s use of speech influences cognitive development; while Piaget would see talking to themselves as egocentrism, Vygotsky sees it as developing cognitive process, the child is making a mental plan that will serve as a guide to following behaviour According to Vygotsky, language is the basis for cognitive development, including ability to remember, solve problems, make decisions and plans At about age 7, stop vocalizing thoughts and carry on inner speech Interconnection of thought and language and importance of society and culture led to propose a developmental distinction important to educational psychologists Actual Development Level: stage of cognitive development reached by a child as demonstrated by ability to solve problems on their own Zone of Proximal Development: the increased potential for problem solving and conceptual ability that exists for a child if expert mentoring and guidance are available Applying Information Processing Models to Cognitive Development Memory Can infants remember? Piaget says no, Rovee-Collier used variation of mobile task on infants 2-6 months and if they kicked more than usual even without ribbon there to move it, it shows they remember it from before Retention span increases over the 2-18 month period, and it is shown retrieval cues help infants retrieve too The M-Space Model Case suggested cognitive development is matter of becoming more efficient in using mental strategies Mental space (m-space): hypothetical construct in Case’s model of cognitive development, similar to working memory, whose primary function is to process info from external world M-space expands, or info processing capacity increases as a result of combination of three variables -As the brain matures so does capacity to process greater amounts of info Maturation of brain, increasing number of networks of neural connections and increased myelinisation of neurons also enhances more efficient processing of info -As children become more practiced at using schemata, less demand is on cognitive resources which can now be used elsewhere -Schemata for different objects and events become integrated so children now think in novel ways about the objects and events Knowledge of Cognition Another important area of growth is knowledge about others’ beliefs and states of mind Theory of mind: expectations concerning how experience af
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