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PSYA02H3 (931)
Chapter 14

Final Exam Notes - Chapter 14.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

CHAPTER 14PERSONALITY research on human personality requires two kinds of effort identifying personality characteristics and determining variables that produce and control themTRAIT THEORIES OF PERSONALITIESPersonality Types and TraitsthEarliest explanation for individual differences in personality proposed by Hippocrates in 4 Century BCE refined ndby Galen in 2 Century CEBased on medical belief that the body contained 4 humours yellow bile black bile phlegm bloodPeople classified according to the disposition supposedly produced by predominance of one of the four humors Yellow Bilebad tempered irritable Black Bilemelancholic gloomy pessimistic Phlegmsluggish calm unexcitable Bloodcheerful passionate This was later discredited but the notion of personality types persistedMost investigators conceive of individual differences in personality as difference in degree not kindPersonality Types different categories into which personality characteristics can be assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences or physical characteristics Personality Trait An enduring personal characteristic that reveals itself in a particular pattern of behaviour or in a variety of situationsPersonality traits are not just patterns of behaviour they are factors that underlie the patterns and are responsible for themIdentification of Personality TraitsAllports Search For Traits Gordon Allport one of first psychologists to search systematically for a basic core of personality traitsSearched a dictionary for words that described aspects of personalityfound 18000 then conducted analysis to eliminate temporary states such as flustered and evaluations such as admirable leaving only stable personality traitsBelieved traits were neuropsychological properties that led to behavioural consistencyIn 44 year longitudinal study researchers found creativity and some aspects of personality remained consistent Fiest and BarronNot all traits have equal influence the most powerful are cardinal traits which are rare but have a strong unifying influence on behaviour Central Traits are less singular but capture important characteristics Secondary Traits include characteristics that have minor influence ie persons tendency to change jobs frequentlyMost modern theories trace back to Allports theoretical work Modern trait theorists maintain we can only explain personality once we know how to describe itCattell Sixteen Personality Factors Raymond Cattell took Allports 18000 words and narrowed it down to 171 adjectives that he believed was a complete set of distinct surface traits
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