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PSYA02H3 (962)
Chapter 11


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Steve Joordens

PSYA02H3 CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT 2013 developmental psychology- study of continuity and change across the life span, and in the last century, developmental psychologists have discovered some amazing things about this metamorphosis Prenatality- A Womb with a View - prenatal stage- ends with birth, begins 9 months earlier Prenatal Development zygote- fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg, ultimately becomes gender - each sperm and egg contains 23 chromosomes, which contain genes, X or Y - germinal stage is the 2 week period that begins at conception - zygote migrates back down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the wall of the uterus - embryonic stage is period that lasts from second week until about the eighth week, zygote is now embryo - fetal stage is period that lasts from the ninth week until birth - embryo has skeleton and muscles, make it capable for movement, during last 2 months, size of fetus increases - formation of fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron aka mylenation - process starts during the fetal stage but doesn't end for years, mylenation of the cortex, continues into adulthood - why are humans born with underdeveloped brains? - human brain has tripled size in 2 million ears of evolution, bigger brains require bigger heads to house them - if babies head were close to adult size, baby cant pass through the vagina... omg that would suck :/ - our talents as a human is to adapt to a wide range of novel environments that differ in terms of climate, social structure, therefore humans come with brains that they develop within an environment Prenatal Environment -placenta is organ that physically links the bloodstream of mother and developing embryo or fetus, and permits exchange of material - food a woman eats during pregnancy can also shape her childs food preferences - agents that damage process of development called teratogens, most common is alchohol - fetal alcohol syndrome developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by mother during pregnancy - human brain is operating even as it begins being built, developing fetus can sense stimulation and learn from it - wombs are dark because only the brightest light can filter through the mothers abdomen, but fetus can hear mothers heartbeat, gastronomical sounds Perceptual and Motor Development - level of detail that newborn can see at distance of 20 feet is equivalent to level of detail that an adult can see at 600 feet - habituation is tendency for organisms to respond less intensely to a stimulus as the frequency of exposure to that stimulus increases - newborns are more attentive to social stimuli, mimic facial expressions in the first hour of life - motor development is the emergence of the ability to execute physical actions such as reaching, grasping, crawling and walking PSYA02H3 CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT 2013 - infants born with reflexes, specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation - rooting reflex tendency for infants to move their mouths towards any object - sucking reflex tendency to suck any object that enters their mouths - cephalocaudal rule, top to bottom, tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet, head, arms, trunks,legs - proximodistal rule, inside outside, tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from center to periphery, babes control their trunks before their elbows and knees, before hands feet - motor skills emerge in an orderly sequence, but not a strict timetable, timing influence by factors such as incentive for reaching, body weight, muscular development, and general level of activity -a study with hanging mobile shows babies beginning to reach for objects 6 weeks earlier than babies who did not - different infants acquire same skill in different way - two infants, energetic, produced large circular movements of both arms, two who were less energetic did not - first step in learning to reach involved learning to lift their arms against force of gravity and extend them forward Cognitive Development - emergence of ability to think and understand - between infancy and adulthood, children must come to understand how physical world works, how their minds represent it, and how other minds represent it Discovering the World - Piagets 4 stages: sensorimotor stage - stage of development that beings at birth and lasts through infancy - use their ability to move to acquire information about the world in which they live - construct schemas, which are theories about or models of the way the world works - assimilation, infants apply their schemas in novel situations - accommodation, infants revise their schemas in light of new information - object performance, the idea tht objects continue to exist even when they are not visible is shown throughout this stage - infants act as though objects stop existing the moment they are out of sight - when infants are tested in other ways they demonstrate a sense of object permanence,, - so basically babies were shown a box placed behind a drawbridge, and some saw - possible event and impossible event, but most stared into the impossible event - another experiment was when infants saw 3 lines, line A was blocked yb a block, and line B was normal, line C was what was surprising bc it looked like line A, they think line A was continous preoperational stage - stage of development that begins about 2 years and ends at 6 - childhood happens, - child learns about physical, concrete objects. learns motor skills but des not understand conservation of physical properties, child begins this stage by thinking egocentrically but ends with basic understanding of other minds PSYA02H3 CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT 2013 - preoperational kids cannot grasp this notion bc of centration, the tendency to focus on just one property of an object to the exclusion of all others - children focus on the length and lines of the eggs without considering the amount of space between each egg - they also fail to think about reversibility, do not consider the fact that operation that made the line of eggs longer could be reversed - they have minds and that these minds contain mental representation of the world concrete operational stage - stage of development that begins at 6 and ends at 11, child learns ho various actions or - operations can affect or transform those objects - quantity is property of set concrete objects that does not change when operation such as spreading out alters the sets appearance - this is the child's conservation, which is the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the objects appearance - concrete stage develops and realize the way world appears is not necessarily the way the world really is - once children can make distinction between objects and their mental representation of objects, they can understand some operations change what an object looks like without changing what the object is like - can solve variety of physical problems Formal operational stage - stage of development that begins around 11 and lasts through adulthood - can solve nonphysical problems with similar ease - able to reasons systematically with abstract concepts like love and liberty - ability to generate, consider, reason about, or operate on abstract objects is hallmark of formal operations Discovering other Minds - egocentrism, the failure to understand the world appears differently to different observers Perceptions and Beliefs - false believe tests, children fall for them every time - egocentrism colours the understanding of children's perspective on themselves Desires and Emotions - very young children understand tht other people have different desires - some take long to understand that other people may have emotional reactions unlike their own Theory of Mind - idea that human behaviours is guided by mental representations - autism is difficulty communicating with other people and making friends - until children acquire theory of mind, they are not generally susceptible to phenomenon of contagious yawning - people with autism can't catch others yawns PSYA02H3 CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT 2013 - deaf children are behind in theory of mind, esp those whose parents do not know sign language because they are slow to learn how to communicate since they don't have access to any conventional language - age in which person acquires theory of mind influenced by many factors such as: - number of siblings the child has, - frequency with which the child engages in pretend play - whether the child has an imaginary companion - socioeconomic status of the child's family - language is most important factor tho - children whose caregivers frequently talk about thoughts and feelings are good at understanding beliefs and belief based emotions - children benefit from hearing words like want, sad, think, or they benifit from the grammatically complex sentences that contain these words, and that caregivers who use psychological words are more effective in getting children to reflect in mental states Piaget Remixed - thought that children graduated from one stage to another in the same way they would fro kindergarten to grade one but he was wrong - cognitive development is more like change of seasons than it is like graduation -children acquire many abilities much earlier than he realized, eg even four month olds display sense of object permanence - he also claimed that it takes many years until children overcome egocentrism enough to realize that others do not know what they know, but experimental procedures detected some evidence of this understand in 13 month olds Discovering our Cultures - russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky, believed that cognitive development was largely result of child's interaction with members of his or her own culture rather than his or her interaction with concrete objects, noted that cultural tools, such as language, counting systems, exert a strong influence on cognitive development - human beings ability to learn from others depends on three fundamental skills joint attention - ability to focus on what another person is focused on. - adult turns head to left, infant and older infant look to left, but if adult closes eyes and then looks left, young infant will loo left but older will not bc older is not following head movements, rather following gaze social referencing - ability to use another persons reaction as information about the world - infant approaches new toy will stop and look back at mom look at her face and see what she thinks about the toy as well imitation - ability to do what another person does, or what another person meant to do - infants learn to mimic adults intentions rather than their actions PSYA02H3 CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT 2013 Social Development - warmth, safety and food are the things we all strive for - Harlow discovered how baby rhesus monkeys that were warm, safe and well fed but allowed no social contact in first 6 months developed a variety of pathologies. - socially isolated monkeys turned out to be incapable of communicating with or learning from others of their kind, and when females matured and became mothers, they ignored, rejected and attacked their own babies as well - Harlow put two artificial mothers in a cage, one with wiring and food and one that was soft but w/o food and the monkeys clung on the one that was soft bc they needed the love, ya feel me? Becoming Attached -Konrad Lorenz discovered that newly hatched goslings will faithfully follow first moving object to which it is exposed, it imprints on its brain that it is what it must stay near - from the moment they are born, goslings waddle after their mothers and monkeys cling to mothers chest bc newborns of both species must stay close
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