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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 intelligence.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA02H3 CHAPTER 10: INTELLIGENCE 2013 - intelligence, is ability to direct ones thinking, adapt to ones circumstances, and learn from one's experiences How can Intelligence be Measured? - Henry Goddard administered intelligence tests to arriving immigrants at Ellis Island, and still used today to rationalize and prejudge certain people - The Intelligence Quotient - Binet and Theodore developed test that would allow educators to develop remedial programs for children who lagged behind peers - made objective test, by searching tasks that only few students would be able to succeedin - designed test to measure child's aptitude for leaning independtant of prior educational achievement, and teachers could find child's "mental level" by computing average tests score in children and finding age group that was most like the childs, - William Stern thought of this to be the childs mental age, best way to determine was bu examining the ratio of the childs mental age to the childs physical age - Lewis Terman formulized it with ratio IQ, a statistic obtained by dividing a persons mental age by the persons physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100 - deviation IQ is a statistic obtained by dividing persons test score b teh average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100 The Logic of Intelligence Testing - create a bunch of tasks and questions, - intelligence test is a measurement of a persons performance ont asks that are correlated with the consequences that intelligence produces - do not measure intelligence in the same way that thermometers measure temperature, measure ability to answer questions and perform tasks that are highly correlated with the ability to get good grades, solve real world problems and so on - Stanford BInet test bsed on Binet and Smion's original tests but has been modifgied and updated many times, moslty by Terman - WAIS test, require respondents to answer a variety of questions and solve a vareity of problems The Consequences of Intelligence - intelligence test is best predictor of: - number of years of education an individual will receive, predicts a persons occupational status and income - predicts how well employees perform in their jobs - wide variety of other important consequences, hoe likley peoplea re to commit crimes, how log people are likely to live - peoples performance on basic cognitive tasks, like when people are exposed to a pair of vertical lines and are asked to determine which is longer, people with high IQs reuire less time ti get the answer Is INtelligence one Ability or Many? - intelligent people hold the gaze of their conversation partners both when they are soeaking and when they are listening, and observers know this, which is what enavles them to accurately estimate a PSYA02H3 CHAPTER 10: INTELLIGENCE 2013 person's intelligence despite their mythical beliefs about the informational valaue of spectacles and neckties A Hierarchy of \abilities - Charpes Spearman was student of Wilhem Wundt, created the factor analysis, which is a statistical techniqur that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small numner of underlying factors - if there really is a single, general ability called intelligence that enables people to perform a variety of intelligent behaviours, tjen those who have this ability should do well at just about everything and those who lac it should do well at just about nothing - spearman measured how well school age children could discriminate small differences in colour, auditory pitch, and weight and he corretlatef thse scores with the childrens graes in different academic subject - most measure were positively correlated, children who scored high in one measure, tended to score high on other measures as well - most replicated result in all psychology - different measures were positively correlated, but not perfectly correlated, - tw factor theory of intelligence, every task requires a combination of general ability, skills tat are specific to the task (s) - Louis Thurstone, used mental abilities such s perceptual, verbal and numerical ability, called it the primary mental abilities - confirmatory factor analysis, correlations between scores on different mental ability tests are best described by a three level hierarchy , with general factor at the top, specific factos, and group factors at the bottom - The Middle Level Abilities Data Based Approach - compute correlations between performances of large number of people on large number of tests and see how those correlations cluster - person who an swat flies can also balance teacups well and person who can understand shakespeare can also sum numbers well, but person who can swar well and balance teacups may not be able to m numbers o understand shakespeare well, twomiddle level abilites, called physical coordination, the ability that allows them to swat and balance well, - academic skill,the ability that allows people to understand shakespeare and sum numbers well - different specific abilities are made by single middle level ability and is unrelated to the other middle level ability - psychologist John Caroll found taht aptternof correlations among tests sugest that existenc eof
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