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Chapter 9&10

Chapter 9 & 10 lectures 2-5.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 2 Chapter 9: Language & Communication 1/26/2013 9:12:00 PM Definitions:  Language: Is a system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning.  Grammar: A set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages  Phonemes: The smallest units of sound that are recognizable as speech rather than as random noise are.  Phonological rules: That indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds.  Morphemes: the smallest meaningful units of language  Morphological rules: indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words.  Content morphemes: refer to things and events (e.g., ―cat,‖ ―dog,‖ ―take‖).  Function morphemes: serve grammatical functions, such as tying sentences together (―and,‖ ―or,‖ ―but‖) or indicating time (―when‖).  Syntactical rules: indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences.  Deep structure: refers to the meaning of a sentence.  Surface structure: refers to how a sentence is worded.  Telegraphic speech: they are devoid of function morphemes and consist mostly of content words.  Nativist theory: holds that language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity  The human brain is equipped with a language acquisition device (LAD)-a collection of processes that facilitate language learning. Language processes naturally emerge as the infant matures, provided the infant receives adequate input to maintain the acquisition process.  A condition is known as genetic dysphasia, a syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence  Aphasia, defined as difficulty in producing or comprehending language  Broca’s area is located in the left frontal cortex; it is involved in the production of the sequential patterns in vocal and sign languages Key Concepts:  The three concepts below indicate what differs us from monkeys;  The complex structure of human language distinguishes it from simpler signaling systems  Humans use words to refer to intangible things, such as unicorn or democracy. W  We use language to name, categorize, and describe things to ourselves when we think, which influences how knowledge is organized in our brains  We naturally develop the phonological rules depending on our language.  These rules combine with the phonemes and morphemes help our brain recognize certain speech.  All languages have grammar rules that generally fall into two categories: rules of morphology and rules of syntax.  Morophigical rules fall under two catrogerizies & with that there is function morphemes and content.  F morphemes; referes to grammatical function which ties senteces together and C morphemes referes to things and events.  With both of these it helps make the human language.  Babies are very good at picking up a new language in fact they by 9 – 12 months they know about 200 words by 4 years they have learned 10,000 which is 4-6 words per day.  Babies have this concept of overgeneralizing words which allows them to make grammatically errors as they develop their vocabulary.  Overgeneralizations if children were learning through trial and error or simply imitating what they hear. That is, it would be difficult to overgeneralize if language development consisted solely of reinforced individual sentences or phrases.  Babies main issue with no understand  Parents don’t spend enough time teaching a child grammar.  children generate many more grammatical sentences than they ever hear. This shows that children don’t just imitate; they learn the rules for generating sentence  As you read earlier in this chapter, the errors children make when learning to speak tend to be overgeneralizations of grammatical rules. Direct Lecture 2 Notes:  Every animal can communicate a lot with there body language.  Human language is different in a few ways, its powerful & it shapes us and it comes with what language allows us to do.  Language is a process where once you learned it you can’t get it out.  Language I the reason why were here right now.  Receptive language for animals is understanding commands not necessary language.  Consciousness has develop animals to have memory and know which body language to use in certain situation  The availability bias is that people are more likely to overestimate the frequency of an event if they are better able to recall that event.  Lecture 3: Chapter 9 Thought & Rational Thinking 1/26/2013 9:12:00 PM  Key terms  Concept refers to a mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related objects, events, or other stimuli.  family resemblance—that is, features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member  the conjunction fallacy because people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event. The fallacy is that with more and more pieces of information, people think there’s a higher probability that all are true.  representativeness heuristic—making a probability judgment by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event  framing effects, which occur when people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased (or framed), can influence the assignment of value.  sunk-cost fallacy, which occurs when people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation  prospect theory, which argues that people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains.  frequency format hypothesis, our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they are to occur  means-ends analysis, which is a process of searching for the means or steps to reduce the differences between the current situation and the desired goal.  analogical problem solving, we attempt to solve a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution and applying that solution to the current problem.  Functional fixedness—the tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed—is a process that constricts our thinking  Reasoning is a mental activity that consists of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions.  Practical reasoning is figuring out what to do, or reasoning directed toward action. Means-ends analysis is one kind of practical reasoning  Theoretical reasoning :Reasoning directed toward arriving at a belief.    Key Ideas:  Prototype, which is the “best” or “most typical member” of the category  We all have traits but not all siblings’ processes all the same traits.  Exemplar theory holds that we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category  contrast to the prototype theory.  Exemplar theory is better way to explain traits because it allows you to take into considerations all species of the same class. Where as prototype just classify species with very similar traits.  Category-specific deficit, an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category though the ability to recognize objects outside the category is undisturbed.  Rational choice theory: We make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two  Prospect theory states that people don’t always make decision that best benefits them for example getting an apartment that living expenses give you more money in your pocket.  Prospect theory states that people don’t always choose this decision.  These decision processes take place in two phases.   Why will most people take more risks to avoid losses than to make gains?  First, people simplify available information. So, in a task like choosing an apartment, they tend to ignore a lot of potentially useful information because apartments differ in so many ways (the closeness of restaurants, the presence of a swimming pool, the color of the carpet, and so forth). Comparing eac
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