Chapter 13 Social Psychology 3/7/2013 2:15:00 PM
you can learn how to spot a cheater, and evidence suggests that people
are able to spot cheaters quite well.
second, you can react strongly when you detect someone cheating, and
evidence suggests that people
defining characteristics of groups is that their members are positively
prejudiced toward other members and tend to discriminate in their favor.
It doesn’t take much to create this kind of favoritism
One of the best predictors of a person’s general well-being is the quality
and extent of their social relationships and group memberships
As human we are mating an we usually don’t hook and to mate with
random people; they select their sexual partners, and the most obvious
fact about this process is that women tend to be more selective than men
Research suggests that this feeling is caused by a range of factors that
can be roughly divided into the situational, the physical, and the
Proximity allows better things for attraction, which means that geography
helps you pick your mate.
Similarities are high in the reasons why we choose are mate.--> are
desire for similarities comes to our belief.
Survival and reproduction require scarce resources, and aggression and
cooperation are two ways to get them.
Aggression often results from negative affect, which can be caused by
almost anything— from being insulted to being hot. The likelihood that a
person will aggress when they feel negative affect is determined both by
biological factors (such as testosterone level) and cultural factors (such as
Cooperation is beneficial but risky, and one strategy for reducing its risks
is to form groups whose members are biased in favor of each other.
Unfortunately, groups often show prejudice and discrimination toward
those who are not members, they sometimes make poor decisions, and
they may even take extreme actions that no individual member would
Human beings can behave altruistically, though behaviors that appear to
be altruistic sometimes have hidden benefits for the person who does
them. Biology and culture tend to make the costs of reproduction higher for
women than for men, which is one reason why women tend to be
choosier when selecting potential mates.
Attraction is determined by situational factors (such as proximity),
physical factors (such as symmetry), and psychological factors (such as
Human reproduction usually occurs within the context of a long-term
relationship. People weigh the costs and benefits of their relationships
and tend to dissolve them when they think they can or should do better,
when they and their partners have very different cost-benefit ratios, or
when they have little invested in the relationship.
People are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain (the hedonic
motive), and thus can be influenced by rewards and punishments, though
these can sometimes backfire.
People are motivated to attain the approval of others (the approval
motive), and thus can be influenced by social norms, such as the norm of
reciprocity. People often look to the behavior of others to determine
what’s normative, and they often end up conforming or obeying,
sometimes with disastrous results.
People are motivated to know what is true (the accuracy motive), and
thus can be Influenced by other people’s behaviors and communications.
This motivation also causes them to seek consistency among their
attitudes, beliefs, and actions.
stereotyping is a useful process that can often produce harmful results,
and it does so because stereotypes tend to have four properties: They are
inaccurate, overused, self-perpetuating, and automatic.
People make inferences about others based on the categories to which
they belong (stereotyping). This method can lead them to misjudge
others because stereotypes can be inaccurate, overused, self-
perpetuating, unconscious, and automatic.
People make inferences about others based on their behaviors. This
method can lead them to misjudge others because people tend to
attribute actions to dispositions even when they should attribute them to
situations. Key terms
Social psychology: is the study of the causes and consequences of
Aggression: is behavior whose purpose is to harm another
Frustration-aggression hypothesis: which suggests that animals
aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated
Group: is a collection of people who have something in common that
distinguishes them from others.
Prejudice: is a positive or negative evaluation of another person based
on their group membership,
Discrimination: is a positive or negative behavior toward another person
based on their group membership
diffusion of responsibility: which occurs when individuals feel
diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by
others who are acting the same way
Kin selection: is the process by which evolution selects for individuals
who cooperate with their relatives, which means that cooperating with
relatives is not really altruistic
Reciprocal altruism: is behavior that benefits another with the
expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
Deindividuation: which occurs when immersion in a group causes
people to become less concerned with their personal values
Groups and Favoritism: Cooperation requires that we take a risk by
benefiting those who have not yet benefited us and then trusting them to
do the same. But other than Mom, who can we really trust?
Altruism: is behavior that benefits another without benefiting
oneself, and for a very long time scientists and philosophers have
debated whether people are ever truly altruistic
Mere exposure effect: is the tendency