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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Social Psychology.docx

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 13 Social Psychology 3/7/2013 2:15:00 PM Key Concepts  you can learn how to spot a cheater, and evidence suggests that people are able to spot cheaters quite well.  second, you can react strongly when you detect someone cheating, and evidence suggests that people  defining characteristics of groups is that their members are positively prejudiced toward other members and tend to discriminate in their favor. It doesn’t take much to create this kind of favoritism  One of the best predictors of a person’s general well-being is the quality and extent of their social relationships and group memberships  As human we are mating an we usually don’t hook and to mate with random people; they select their sexual partners, and the most obvious fact about this process is that women tend to be more selective than men  Research suggests that this feeling is caused by a range of factors that can be roughly divided into the situational, the physical, and the psychological.  Proximity allows better things for attraction, which means that geography helps you pick your mate.  Similarities are high in the reasons why we choose are mate.--> are desire for similarities comes to our belief.  Survival and reproduction require scarce resources, and aggression and cooperation are two ways to get them.  Aggression often results from negative affect, which can be caused by almost anything— from being insulted to being hot. The likelihood that a person will aggress when they feel negative affect is determined both by biological factors (such as testosterone level) and cultural factors (such as religion).  Cooperation is beneficial but risky, and one strategy for reducing its risks is to form groups whose members are biased in favor of each other. Unfortunately, groups often show prejudice and discrimination toward those who are not members, they sometimes make poor decisions, and they may even take extreme actions that no individual member would take alone.  Human beings can behave altruistically, though behaviors that appear to be altruistic sometimes have hidden benefits for the person who does them.  Biology and culture tend to make the costs of reproduction higher for women than for men, which is one reason why women tend to be choosier when selecting potential mates.  Attraction is determined by situational factors (such as proximity), physical factors (such as symmetry), and psychological factors (such as similarity).  Human reproduction usually occurs within the context of a long-term relationship. People weigh the costs and benefits of their relationships and tend to dissolve them when they think they can or should do better, when they and their partners have very different cost-benefit ratios, or when they have little invested in the relationship.  People are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain (the hedonic motive), and thus can be influenced by rewards and punishments, though these can sometimes backfire.  People are motivated to attain the approval of others (the approval motive), and thus can be influenced by social norms, such as the norm of reciprocity. People often look to the behavior of others to determine what’s normative, and they often end up conforming or obeying, sometimes with disastrous results.  People are motivated to know what is true (the accuracy motive), and thus can be Influenced by other people’s behaviors and communications. This motivation also causes them to seek consistency among their attitudes, beliefs, and actions.  stereotyping is a useful process that can often produce harmful results, and it does so because stereotypes tend to have four properties: They are inaccurate, overused, self-perpetuating, and automatic.  People make inferences about others based on the categories to which they belong (stereotyping). This method can lead them to misjudge others because stereotypes can be inaccurate, overused, self- perpetuating, unconscious, and automatic.  People make inferences about others based on their behaviors. This method can lead them to misjudge others because people tend to attribute actions to dispositions even when they should attribute them to situations. Key terms  Social psychology: is the study of the causes and consequences of sociality.  Aggression: is behavior whose purpose is to harm another  Frustration-aggression hypothesis: which suggests that animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated  Group: is a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others.  Prejudice: is a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership,  Discrimination: is a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership  diffusion of responsibility: which occurs when individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way  Kin selection: is the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives, which means that cooperating with relatives is not really altruistic  Reciprocal altruism: is behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future  Deindividuation: which occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values  Groups and Favoritism: Cooperation requires that we take a risk by benefiting those who have not yet benefited us and then trusting them to do the same. But other than Mom, who can we really trust?  Altruism: is behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself, and for a very long time scientists and philosophers have debated whether people are ever truly altruistic  Mere exposure effect: is the tendency
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