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Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

CHAPTER 11 Theories of Intelligence  Some researchers promote the idea that some intellectual abilities are completely independent of one another o Example: a person can be incredible are spatial reasoning but poor ar solving verbal analogies  There are three Theories of intelligence o A two-factor theory o An information processing theory o A neuropsychological theory Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory  Charles Spearman (1927) proposed that a person’s performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by two factors o G Factor: according to Spearman a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks, includes apprehension of experience, eduction of relations, and eduction of correlates’  Eduction is the process of drawing or bringing out – that is, of figuring out from given facts  Apprehension of experience refers to people’s ability to perceive and understand what they experience  Eduction of Relations refers to the ability to perceive the relationship between lawyer and client; namely that the lawyer works for the client  Eduction of Correlates refers to the ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case o S Factor: according to Spearman a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task Evidence From Factor Analysis  With Karl Pearson, Spearman developed a statistical procedure known as factor analysis o This procedure permits researches to identify commonalities among groups of test o In the case of intelligence tests the common factor would be particular abilities that affect people’s performance on more than one test  Many factor analyses have been performed on tests of intellectual abilities. o For example, Louis Thustrone (1938) administered a battery of 56 tests to 218 college students and then performed a factor analysis o He extracted seven factors:  Verbal comprehension  Verbal fluency  Number  Spatial visualization  Memory  Reasoning  Perceptual speed o Cattell performed just such a second order factor analysis and found not one, but two major factors:  Fluid Intelligence fg)  Relative culture free tasks, such as those that measure the ability to see relation among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series of items  Crystallized Intelligence cg )  Tasks that rewuire people to have acquired information from thei culture, such as vocabulary and the kind of information learned in school  If people have the same experiences, the one with the greater fluid intelligence will develop the greater crystallized intelligence. However, the people with a high fluid intelligence exposed to an intellectually impoverished environment will develop a poor or mediocre crystallized intelligence An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence  According to Robert Sternberg, the degree of success that people achieve in life is strongly affected by the extent to which they effectively analyze their unique combinations of strengths and weaknesses  Sternberg developed a triarchic theory of intelligence that derives from the information processing approach used by many cognitive psychologists  The three parts of the theory deal with three aspects of intelligence: analytic intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence  Taken together these three aspects contribute to what Sternberg calls successful intelligence o Successful Intelligence: is the ability to (a) analyze ones strength and weaknesses, (b) use the strengths to greatest advantage and (c) minimize the impact of weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them  Analytic Intelligence: consists of mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks o The components revealed by factor analyses of verbal ability and deductive reasoning that we just described are facets of analytic intelligence o These three components serve three function  Metacomponents are the processes by which people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, select a strategy for solving it, and allocate their resource  Performance Components are the ocmponents actually used to perform the tast. Example, word recognition and working memory  Knowledge Acquisition Components are those that the person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant information and integrating it with what he or she already knows  Creative Intelligence: the ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve familiar problems automatically o A person with high creative intelligence is able to deal more effectively with novel situations than a person with low creative intelligence  Practical Intelligence: intelligence reflecting the behaviours that were subject to natural selection in out evolutionary history o Practical intelligence takes three forms:  Adaptation: consists of fitting oneself into one;s environment by developing useful skills and behaviours  Selection refers to the ability to find one’s own niche in the environment  Shaping for example, a person whose talents are not appreciated by his or her employer may decide to start his or her own business An outline of Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Analytic Intelligence  Metacomponent (e.g., Planning)  Performance Component (e.g., lexical access)  Knowledge Acquisition Component (e.g., ability to acquire vocabulary words) Creative Intelligence  Novel Tasks  Automated Tasks Practical Intelligence  Adaptation (adapting to the environment)  Selection (finding a suitable environment)  Shaping (changing the environment) Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence  Gardner (1983, 1993, 1999) has formulated a theory of multiple intelligences, rejecting the idea of a single or even a few primary types of intelligence  From Gardeners perspective, intelligences are situated within cultures  Gardner (1999) concluded that there are eight intelligences that meet his criteria of distinctness and believes that there is eevidfence of a potential ninthe intelligence existential intelligence An outline of Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Type of Intelligence Description Example Activities and Professions Logical-mathematical Ability to reason logically Conduct systematic Intelligence and to process investigations; scientists, mathematical equations mathematicians, logicians Verbal-linguistic Ability to use language, Learn new languages easily, intelligence sensitivity to meanings and write and speak clearly; sound of words writers, teachers, lawyers Visual-spatial intelligence Ability to understand Organize objects and patterns in closed or open activities in three- spaces dimensional space; sculptors, architects, pilots Naturalist Intelligence Ability to understand Identify and categorize patterns in nature plants and animals, notice regularities of weather conditions; taxonomists, nosologists, farmers, hinters, herbal medicine practitioners, meteorologists Bodily-kinesthetic Ability to control the body Use of the body to solve Intelligence precisely problems and create; athletes, dancers, actors, mechanics, surgeons Musical Intelligence Ability to understand and Composition and
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