Textbook Notes (362,796)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA02H3 (931)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11.doc

14 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 11Intelligence and ThinkingIntelligence a persons ability to learn and remember information to recognize concepts and their relations and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an adaptive wayThree approaches to the study of intelligence Differential approach favours development of tests that identify and measure individual differences in peoples abilities to solve problems particularly those that use skills important in the classroomDevelopmental approach the ways in which children learn to perceive manipulate and think about the worldoJean Piaget 18961980 Swiss most influential proponent of this approachInformation processing approach focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve various problemsTheories of IntelligenceSpearmans Two Factor TheoryCharles Spearman 1927Proposed a persons performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by two factorsoG Factor general Three qualitative principles of cognition apprehension of experience education of relations and eduction of correlates ability to apply a rule inferred from one case to a similar case oS Factor specificGeneral factor accounted for moderate correlations among different tests of abilityA persons score on a particular test depends on two things the persons specific ability s on the particular test and his or her level of the g factor or general reasoning abilityEvidence from Factor AnalysisKarl Pearson and SpearmanDeveloped a statistical procedure known as factor analysisoFactor analysis identifies common factors among groups of testsoIn intelligence tests common factors would be particular abilitiesoIf scores of people correlate well tests measure same factoroFA determines which sets of tests form groupsBirren and Morrison calculated using a WAIS testNumbers in columns ABC are called Factor LoadingsoVerbal ability or general intelligence vocab info comprehension similaritiesoMaintaining info in shortterm memory and manipulating numbers digit span arithmetic and digit symboloSpatial ability block design obj assembly pic completion and pic arrangementProvides clues about nature of intelligence but not theoryLouis Thurstone 1938Tested 218 colleagues with 56 testsHad seven factorsThought results contradicted Spearmans g factorEysenck suggested that a second factor analysis could be performed on Thurstones factorsIf analysis found one common factor among factors Spearmans factor would receive supportWhich means if Thurstones seven factors themselves had a secondorder factor in common this factor might be conceived of as general intelligenceCatellPerformed a secondorder factor and found two major factorsoHorn and Catell called themFluid intelligence g defined by relatively culture free tasks measure fability to see relations among objects or the ability to see patterns in a repeating series of itemsCrystallized intelligence g require people to have acquired info from their cculture such as vocabulary and the kind of info learned in schoolCATELL SAYSFluid POTENTIAL ability to learn and solve problemsCrystallized what a person has ACCOMPLISHED through use of fluid intelligenceg depends on g cfFluid int supplies native ability whereas experience with language exposure to books school develop crystallized intelligence2 peopleoThe one with higher fluid int will develop greater crystallized intoHowever if exposed to an intellectually impoverished environment will develop a poor or mediocre crystallized int HORN SAYSBoth factors are learned but are based on a degree of hereditygis based on casual learning and g is based on cultural school type learningf cAn Information Processing Theory of IntelligenceRobert SternbergDegree of success is by extent person analyzes and manages their unique combinations of strengths and weaknesses
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.