Textbook Notes (362,796)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA02H3 (931)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12.doc

14 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 12 – Lifespan Development Cross sectional study: a study of development in which individuals of different ages are compared at the same time • More convenient • Avoids problems associated with testing the same individual over and over again Longitudinal study: compares observations of the same individuals at different times of their lives Prenatal Development • Prenatal period: nine months between conception and birth • 38 weeks (266 days) • Genetic contribution  genotype • X chromosome inactivation occurs early in females o It affects all subsequent cellular reproduction • “silenced” chromosome Read this section again Stages of Prenatal Development Zygote stage: lasts 2 weeks • Internal organs begin to develop • Layers are formed o One for: skin, hair, nervous system and sensory organs o Other: for digestive and respiratory system and glands o Third one develops near the end of this stage: muscles, and circulatory and excretory system Embryonic stage: from 2-8 weeks • Zygote is transformed into an embryo • Rapid pace development • By about a month, heart begins to beat, brain and spinal cord start to function and major body structures are beginning to form • The end of this stage: major features: arms, hands, fingers, legs, toes, shoulders, heard and eyes are visible • Most susceptible to external chemical influences • Teratogens: substances, agents, and events that can cause birth defects • Beginning of sexual development through gonads • Androgens: the primary class of sex hormones in males. The most important androgen is testosterone o These hormones stimulates male growth o Female sex organs to not need to be stimulated by a hormone Fetal stage: lasts for 7 months • Appearance of bone cells and ends with birth • Movement – kicking • 4 month: Sleeps and wakes, heart beat loud enough • 7 month: if born prematurely can survive • At the end is 50cm long and 3.5 kg Threats to Normal Prenatal Development Mother’s diet is really important • Malnourishment: abnormal development of nervous system of fetus Teratogens harmful • Tetracyline: antibiotic o Irregularities in bones and discoloration of teeth • Cocaine o Premature birth o Low birth weight o Smaller than normal head circumference, can still be seen at age 7 o Interferes with neural development and long term consequences in areas of arousal and attention o Some born addicted • Cigarette smoking o Carbon monoxide reduces oxygen which is harmful halfway which is the period when demand for oxygen is greatest o Increased rate of miscarriages/ More births by C-section o Low birth weight, Birth defect: cleft palate o Inability to process speech sounds o May relate to behavioural problems during adolescence • Alcohol o Pre- and postnatal growth deficits o FAS – fetal alcohol syndrome – heart deformation • Pesticides and environment teratogens o Damage to chromosome structure of sperm cells Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood Infant and toddler – from birth up to two years Motor Development Maturation: any relatively stable change in thought, behaviour or physical growth that is due to the aging process and not to experience • Although children progress at different rates, their development follows same maturation pattern Birth • Reflexes: automatic movement in response to specific stimuli o These are rooting, sucking and swallowing  Important for survival and social development Motor skills develop due to • Maturation of nervous system o Nervous system is not complete at birth o Considerable grows occurs over the first several months (associated with IQ) • Practice Perceptual Development Playing a recording of mother’s voice outside of her abdomen increased heart rate of her fetus while a stranger’s did not Newborn’s senses developed to a certain extent Form Perception Study visual perceptual abilities of infants by observing eye movements with a tracking device Salaptek (1975) • One month old: doesn’t look inside the figure, but at the edges • Two months: scans to see interior • By three months: clear signs of pattern recognition • Four or five months: differentiate between faces that are very similar Distance Perception Gibson and Walk • Virtual cliff • Babies of 6 months could have 3D(depth) perception Stereopsis: form of depth perception when two images are fused through visual processing. “Solid vision”. Will not develop unless animals view objects with both eyes during a period in early life • Stereopsis dependence on retinal disparity(cue for depth perception) has imp implications for the development of normal vision o Eyes that are crossed will receive same info and will not develop depth perception Critical and Sensitive Periods in Perceptual Development Critical period: specific time during which certain experiences must occur if an individual If children are not with caregivers for first two years of their life  cognitive development impaired Sensitive period: a period of time during which certain experiences have more of an effect on development than they would have if they occurred at another time Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood Infants of 12 months can form memories  Cognitive capacities develop The Importance of a Responsive Environment Cognitive development: process to know things about yourself and your world Watson and Ramey • Presented a mobile to three groups of infants • Pillow with a sensitive switch placed under each baby’s head • Group 1: mobile automatically rotated when baby moved its head and activated the switch • Group 2: mobile remained stationary • Group 3: mobile moved on its own • Babies were tested again o Babies that learned to move their heads to make the mobile did so again but the other groups did not Another research showed that losing the control produced facial expressions of anger Being able to extend oneself and affect objects and other people are important aspects of personal and social functioning J.F’s case • Was in a Romanian orphanage • Only went outside once • Neglected for 3 years • Adoptive Canadian parents tried so hard to provide care but she was incapable of accepting the attachment • Her maturity was that of an 18month old • By the age of 10 – household was living hell • She was diagnosed with autism, attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity • Mother called social agency screaming for help • For the next 6 years J.F. lived in a group home in another town The Work of Jean Piaget Jean Piaget (1896-1980) • Swiss researcher who viewed cognitive development as a maturational process • Observed his own children • Sequence of development that all children follow • Important component of his theory is nomination of an operation: logical or mathematical rule that transforms an object or concept into something else • Operation can be reversed • According to him, an important aspect of cognitive development is whether a child has the ability to use operations of different types • Children acquire mental representations that are used for understanding and dealing with the world and for thinking about and solving problems • Schema: mental framework that organizes and synthesizes info about a person, place or thing • Piaget says that schemata are first objects and actions, then become knowledge • Piaget sags that there are two processes that help a child adapt to environment o Assimilation  Process by which new info is incorporated into existing schemata o Accommodation  Process by which existing chemata are changed by new experiences Piaget’s Four Periods of Cognitive Development • Argued that at a key point in life, the two above will fail to adjust to knowledge • So schemas are radically reorganized through equilibration • Key points are divided into four periods (LOOK AT CHART ON PAGE 370) • The Seonsorimotor Period o First two years of life o From reflexes to symbolic thinking o External stimulation o Development of object permanence: realization that objects do not cease to exist when they are out of sight o Until about 6 months: out of sight, out of mind o Thinking is doing o But can only look for things in things that they can see • The Preoperational Period o From 2-7 years old o Ability to think logically as well as symbolically o Development of language ability o Egocentrism: child’s belief that others see the world in precisely the way they do o Schemas do not permit invertible operations (water bucket level, thin tall, small) o Conservation: ability to realize that an object retains volume, mass, length, or number when it goes various transformations • The Period of Concrete Operations o 7-11 years old o Children develop understanding of conservation principle and categorization o End is from childhood to adolescence o Symbolic thought, empathy, logical analysis • The Period of Formal Operations o Starts at age 11 o Abstract reasoning o Can reason about hypothetical objects o Not everyone goes through all 4 stages Evaluation of Piaget’s Contributions • Positive impact by stimulating interest in developmental psychology • Criticised – did not always define his terms operationally • Many generalizations • Studies show that conservation occurs earlier than he supposed • Same with egocentrism Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development • Russian psychologist (1896-1934) • Research from 1920s and 30s but his writings still influence today’s research • Argued that the culture in which a child lives also plays a significant role in child’s cognitive development (not just experience with the physical world like Piaget argued) • Parents, teachers, friends etc... help children acquire ideas about how the world works • Also believed use of speech influenced cognitive development o If a child is colouring and says “I will paint this green and that blue”  Piaget would say that is reflecting egocentrism  Vygotsky would say that the child is developing a mental plan (cognitive developmental process) • At age 7, children stop vocalizing thoughts and use inner speech • The skills and problem solving abilities a child can show on their own indicates level of development the child has mastered • This was called the Actual Development Level • He argued that a parent can assist a child to achieve a potentially higher level • Increased capacity for problem solving resulting from guided help was called the Zone of Proximal Development Applying Information Processing Models to Cognitive Development Memory Can infants remember? Piaget = no Rovee-Collier and colleagues tested this • Babies 2-6 months • Red ribbon attached to foot to move mobile • Next time it was disconnected • They also tested 6-18 months with a switch • The kids did remember and kicked faster the second time The M-Space Model Case in 1998 suggested that cognitive development is when a child becomes more efficient in using mental strategies • Model is Mental space (M-space): hypothetical construct, similar to short term or working memory, whose chief function is the processing of info from the external world • M-space expands due to three variables o As brain matures, so does its capacity to process greater amounts of info o As children become more practised at using schemata, less demand is placed on cognitive resources, which can now be devoted to more complex tasks o Schemata for different objects and events become integrated so that children now think in novel ways about these objects and events. • This model rephrases Piaget’s theory in information processing terms Knowledge of Cognition Theory of mind: expectations concerning how experience affects mental states, especially those of another. Four year olds can infer how events can shape the state of mind or beliefs of another Three year olds don’t: use own beliefs to predict beliefs and actions of others Sally-Anne test • Child shown two dolls – Sally and Anne • Sally leaves marble in doll house, Anne steals it, Sally comes back, ask child where will Sally look for the marble, they will say with Anne since they know where it is, but by age of 4 they will grasp the concept that Sally doesn’t know that Naive psychology: recognize other people’s behaviour patterns based on own beliefs Social Development in Infancy and Childhood Attachment is really important for infant’s social development Attachment: a social and emotional bond between infant and caregiver that spans both time and space Harwood – comparison of cross-cultural attachment patterns • White American mothers want self-sustaining children and emphasize independence, self-reliance and self-confidence • Puerto Rican mothers want children to be polite and law-abiding and stress respect, courtesy interdependence and tact Behaviours of the Infant That Foster Attachment Evidence shows that infants are innately able to produce special behaviours that shape and even control behaviour of their caregivers Sucking • In order to obtain milk • Piaget: infants suck on objects even when they are not hungry o To inhibit a baby’s distress Cuddling • Harry Harlow: experiments on infant monkeys – showed that clinging was an innate response – contact is innately reinforcing, not only for food Looking • Seeks eye-to-eye contact • Tronick and colleagues observed face to face interactions between mothers and infants o Looking behaviour of an infant is an invitation for the mother to respons Smiling • Baby can smile at 5 weeks at anything • Baby will start to smile at specific faces at 3 months • Newborns repeat facial movements of another - “imitation” Crying • To get picked up, made more comfortable or fed • Parent learns through negative reinforcement • Evolutionary psychologists: “to enhance chances of surviving and reproducing” The Nature and Quality of Attachment Stranger Anxiety and Separation Anxiety Attachment reveals itself in these two ways Stranger anxiety: between ages of 6-12 months • Wariness and sometimes fearful responses (crying and clinging) in presence of strangers Separation anxiety • Fearful responses: crying, arousal, clinging when caregiver attempts to leave the infant • 6 months and peaks at about 15 months Familiarity breeds attachment Ainsworth’s Strange Situations Test of attachment developed by Ainsworth and colleagues called Strange Situation • Series of 8 episodes that cause distress related to attachment to a baby • Parent and child enter a room, parent leaves and reunites, stranger enters with or without parent • Identified 3 patterns (a fourth one was identified by Main and Solomon) o Secure attachment  Preference to caregiver over stranger  Cry when parent leaves but stop when they come back  Three types of insecure attachment o Resistant attachment  Stay close to caregiver when they leave but show approach and avoidance behaviours when they come back  They continue to cry after they return and may even push them away o Avoidant attachment  Don’t cry when they are left alone  React the same with stranger as caregiver  When parent comes back avoid/ignore them – don’t cling when picked up o Disoriented attachment  Low quality attachment and appear to be troubled  React in confused and contradictory ways  May stop crying when held, but show no emotions and turn head away from caregiver  Appear dazed • Mother’s behaviour appears to establish secure or insecure attachment o If respond promptly to crying and handling them to needs = securely attached o If she doesn’t modulate their respond to infant’s behaviour = avoidant o If are impatient and seem more interested in own activities = resistant o If interfere with infant’s behaviour, but without sensitivity, exhibit fearful and disoriented responses = disoriented Insecure attachment for women = depression and difficulty coping with stress Effects of Child Daycare • High quality day care produces no impairment of attachment or actually benefits social development • But that’s for high quality, poor quality is a different issues Approaches to Child Rearing Family: a type of system in which members have interacting roles Vygotsky: child-parent partnership works best when the parent provides scaffolding for the child’s development Scaffolding: matching of the mentor’s efforts to the child’s developmental level • Most effective form of parent-child instruction Parents adopt one of four approaches when raising their children • Authoritarian o Establish firm rules to be obeyed without question o Punishment for disobedience o Children: unhappy and distrustful • Permissive o Impose few rules – do little to influence child’s behaviour o Children of permissive are least self reliant and curious because never received parental encouragement for these behaviours • Authoritative o Establish rules and enforce them o Not merely through punishment o Seek to explain the relationship between rules and punishment o Rules not absolute laws, but general behavioural guidelines o Chil
More Less

Related notes for PSYA02H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.