Chapter 9 Fast Mapping: children map a word onto an underlying
concept after only a single exposure (unlike learning
Language and Communication math and writing, which take longer to learn).
Telegraphic Speech: devoid of function morphemes,
Language: a system for communicating with others,
mostly content words (although no function
using signals that are combined according to rules of morphemes, sentences are grammatical. I.E. more milk
grammar (set of rules that specify how units of
language can be combined to produce meaningful instead of milk more).
The progression of milestones may have resulted
messages) and convey meaning. because infants are not capable of holding more than
Our language is distinct from animals because:
one, then they learn to hold two and so on (purely
1. Human language is more complex than simple cognitive development approach) or because it depends
signaling systems used by animals
2. Humans use words to refer to intangible things on experience with the language (this is the correct one
according to studies of internationally adopted children)
3. Humans use language to name, categorize and
describe things to ourselves when we think,
Behaviourist Theory (Skinner): we learn to talk like how
influencing our information organization in the we learn to do anything else: through reinforcement,
Basic Characteristics of Human Language: shaping, and extinction – operant conditioning.
Problem: parents don’t actually spend time teaching
Phonemes: smallest units of sound recognizable their infants grammar, they focus more on meaning. 2.
as speech rather than random noise (b and p)
Children generate many more grammatical sentences
Phonological Rules: indicate how phonemes than they hear, so how can it be reinforcement? Errors
can be combined to produce speech sounds (ts
are caused by overgeneralization which should not have
in Germany is acceptable, in English, it’s occurred if they learned through conditioning.
considered as an accent)
Morphemes: smallest meaningful units of Nativist Theory (Chomsky): language-learning capacity
is built in brain, which is specialized to rapidly acquire
language made of combined phonemes language through exposure (an innate, biological
capacity). Brain is equipped with LAD (Language
o Morphological: indicate how Acquisition Device): a collection of processes that
morphemes can be combined to form
facilitate language learning. Genetic Dysphasia:
words (content morphemes: things and syndrome characterized by inability to learn
events, function morphemes: grammatical structure of language despite having
normal general intelligence (this shows that LAD is
o Syntactical: indicate how words can be separate from other brain functions). Supporting this
combined to form phrases/sentences
theory is the fact that once puberty hits, language
Deep vs. Surface Structures: Deep: meaning of a development becomes difficult. Problem: they do not
sentence. Surface: how sentence is worded. Usually describe how language developed, only why.
sentences created by thinking of deep then surface.
Interactionism Theory: although children are born with
Characteristics of Language Development: innate ability to learn language, social interaction is
1. Children learn language rapidly
crucial. This theory adds on to nativism.
2. Children make few errors while learning to
speak (usually because they overgeneralize The brain parts responsible for language are Broca‘s
their learned grammatical rules)
area (left frontal cortex – responsible for patterns in
3. Children’s passive mastery develops faster than vocal and sign languages. People with damage there
active mastery (understanding is better than
understand language but cannot speak) and Wernicke’s
speaking) area (left temporal cortex – language comprehension.
Infants can distinguish between speech sounds, unlike People with damage there can’t understand and
adults. produce grammatical but meaningless sentences). Prototype Theory (Rosch): build on family
Damage to either one causes aphasia (difficulty in resemblance, but also that psychological
producing/comprehending language). Right cerebral properties (naturally formed) are best described
hemisphere is also responsible for language processing: as organized around a prototype (most typical
When words are presented to right member).
hemispheres, they can be read Exemplar Theory: we make category judgments
Patients with damage to the right hemisphere by comparing a new instance with stored
develop speech problems memories for other instances of the category
Neuroimaging results show evidence of right (what you’re looking at is an example of what
hemisphere activation you know something looks like). It’s better than
Children with left hemispheres removed (to prototype because it accounts for why we both
recall what a prototype looks like and what a
treat epilepsy) recover language abilities.
Scientists have attempted to teach apes (Washoe and specific dog looks like.
Kanzi) the ASL, and the apes learned hundreds of words.
Participants in studies classified prototypes faster when
There are limitations
Size of vocabulary is relatively small (compared presented on right (left hemisphere received input first)
and exemplars faster when presented on left (right
to 10,000 words learned by human children) hemisphere received input first). Visual cortex is used
Although they can learn signs for concepts they
understand, their conceptual repertoire is for forming prototypes (image processing) and
prefrontal and basal ganglia are used for learning
simpler than humans (difficulty with abstracts) exemplars (involves analysis and decision making).
Apes have a very simple grammar they use and
Category-Specific Deficit: inability to recognize objects
comprehend, otherwise it’s difficult that belong to a particular category though the ability to
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis: language shapes
nature of thought (according to Whorf). He used recognize objects outside is undisturbed (usually
damage to left hemisphere/cerebral cortex – front left
Natives as an example and how they perceive snow, but temporal: can’t identify humans, to lower left temporal:
scientists disproved this by showing that people who
animals, region where temporal meets occipital and
only knew colours as dark and light can learn more parietal: tools). Adam (16-year-old who can’t recognize
shades. Also, scientists hypothesized that language
affects colour perception, and this was supported by biological things because of a stroke after he was born)
shows that the brain is prewired to categorize.
experiments where English and Namibian children
identified colour. Another study was conducted on Decision Making
Russian versus English colour naming (goluby and sinjy).
Rational Choice Theory: we make decision by
Another experiment was of English vs. Mandarin determining how likely something is to happen, judging
speakers in identifying times of events (horizontal vs.
value of outcome and multiplying the two.
vertical). People are good at estimating frequency (how many
times something happened), as opposed to thinking of
Concepts and Categories probability (likelihood that something will happen).
Concept: mental representation that groups or Heuristic (fast and efficient strategies that may facilitate
categorizes shared features of related objects, events or decision making but not guarantee reaching a solution)
stimuli. vs. algorithm (well-defined sequence of procedures or
Theories of How People Perceive Categorization Acts: rules that guarantees a solution to problem)
Family Resemblance Theories (Rosch): features Sources of Error in human cognition (or heuristics):
that appear to be characteristic of category Availability bias: items that are more readily
members but may not be possessed by every
available in memory are judged as having
member (me and sis have mom’s hair but dad’s occurred more frequently
eyes, so resemblance makes a family). Conjunction Fallacy: people think that 2 events according to galvanic skin response. The difference is
are more likely to occur together than either that when healthy people attempted to think about
individual event. It’s a fallacy because it’s risks, they had higher reactions, whereas sick people did
always true that 2 events have a lower not react at all. This shows that people with prefrontal
probability of occurring together than only one damage are devoid of emotions towards risk, and so
Representative heuristic: making a probability cannot perceive it.
judgement by comparing an object or event to a
prototype of the object or event. People seem Problem-Solving
to ignore information about base rate (existing
There are two types of problems: ill-defined (vague
probability of an event). problems, no clear solutions) and well-defined (clear
Framing Effect: people give different answers/reactions solutions available)
to the same problem depending on how the problem is
phrased; one example is sunk-cost fallacy (when people Dunker saw that people solve problems through means-
make decisions about a current situation based on what ends analysis (a process of searching for the means or
steps to reduce the differences between current
they previously invested in the situation), i.e. the $100
basketball game. Another is the Functional Fixedness situation and desired goal) and follows these steps:
(tendency to perceive functions of an object as fixed) 1. Analyze goal state (desired outcome)
limits the types of solutions that occur to us. 2. Analyze current situation
3. List differences between current an d goal state
4. Reduce list of differences by:
Theories Regarding Errors of Decision-Making
Prospect Theory: people choose to take risks Direct means (solve problem with no
when evaluating potential losses and don’t take intermediate steps)
risks when evaluating potential gains. This takes Generating subgoal (use intermediate
place in 2 phases: step on the way to solving the problem)
Analytical Problem-Solving: solve
1. People simplify available information, focus
only on differences that matter problem by finding similar problems
2. People choose the prospect that they with known solutions and applying it to
believe offers the best value. current problem
Prospect theorists make assumptions: Sometimes problems can be solved with creative and
o Certainty Effect: when making insightful solutions that have never before been tried,
decisions, people give greater weight to which rely on restructuring a problem so that it turns
definitive outcomes. into a problem you already know how to solve (think of
o When evaluating choices, people Gauss), according to Gestalt psychologists. Research
compare them to a reference point. suggests that those occur because of unconscious,
o People are more willing to take risks to incremental processes.
avoid losses than to achieve gains. To examine brain activity associated with insight,
Frequency Format Hypothesis: our minds researchers used compound remote associates (people
given lists of 3words and need to find a fourth relevant
evolved to notice how frequently things occur
not how likely they are to occur. Frequency word through either analytic or insight). Results showed
monitoring is a biological capacity more than it that brain activity differs with the 2 strategies because
is a skill learned. brain activation prior to presentation of problem
influences which method is to be used. Anterior
Cingulate (in frontal lobe, in charge of cognitive
People with prefrontal damage select events of risk as
frequently as low-risk events. Healthy and prefrontal- processes) is activated with insight. Research also
damaged people react similarly when they showed huge showed that ‘happy’ people used insight more.
emotional response to big risks and big rewards Transforming Information the ratio of it with physical age was the determinant.
Reasoning: mental activity that consists of organizing Terman was the one who called it ratio Intelligence
information/beliefs into a series of steps to reach Quotient (statistic obtained by dividing a person’s
mental age by physical age and multiplying by 100).
conclusions. Logic: system of rules that specify which
conclusions to follow from which statements; a tool for Because of anomalies, deviation IQ (statistic obtained
evaluating reasoning, but not reasoning itself. Logic is by dividing person’s test score by average test score in
the same age group and multiplying by 100) was
the tools, reasoning is the house.
formulated, but with this, we can’t compare people
Types of Reasoning: across different age groups. So, for children, ratio IQ is
Practical Reasoning: figuring out what to do, or used, for adults, deviation IQ. In 1920’s, Goddard made
reasoning directed toward an action (means- with intelligence tests to be able to segregate the smart
ends analysis is an example) from the dull.
Theoretical Reasoning (aka discursive):
reasoning directed toward arriving at a belief Intelligence tests only measure a person’s performance
on tasks correlated to consequences that intelligence
(used to determine which beliefs follow logically produces, not intelligence itself. Tests are like Binet-
from other beliefs)
Syllogistic Reasoning: whether a conclusion Simon or WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). IQ
may predict income, education level, political link…
follows 2 statements that we assume are true
People are better at practical than theoretical.
Is Intelligence One Ability or Many?
A failure in reasoning is belief bias (people’s Spearman invented a technique, factor analysis
judgements about whether to accept conclusions
depend more on how believable the conclusions are (statistical method that explains a large number of
correlations in terms of a small number of underlying
than on whether the arguments are logically valid (most factors). He measured how school children discriminate
problematic to syllogistic reasoning).
between color, auditory pitch and weight, and then
correlated these with the child’s grade in school
Activity in the left temporal lobe of the brain (involved
in memory retrieval) was activated with belief-laden subjects as well as the teachers’ estimate of their
syllogisms not with belief-neutral, showing that The research revealed:
participants take different approaches to the 2
reasoning types. This also proves that different types of 1. Most of the measures were positively
correlated (“the most replicated result in all of
reasoning call on different parts of the brain; no centre psychology”). Even mice show this relation.
2. Although correlation existed, the child with the
best score in one area isn’t the best in another.
He came up with two-factor theory of intelligence:
How Can Intelligence Be Measured? every task requires a combination of a general ability
and skills that are specific to the task.
Intelligence: ability to direct one’s thinking, adapt to
one’s circumstances and learn from one’s experiences.
Thurstone noticed that the positive correlation was
End of 19 century, France realized that it had students higher amongst similar areas, so there was not ‘general
with different potentials and wanted to help as many as ability’ only specific brain regions in charge of
possible, based on their pace, so they asked Binet and perceptual, verbal, numerical abilities (primary mental
Simon to create intelligence tests to classify the abilities)…
students. They called it natural tests because they
In 1980’s confirmatory factor analysis was created and
tested cognitive abilities, not reading/writing. They
tested ability for learning, not educational achievement. showed that correlations between scores on different
With Stern, the ‘mental age’ of a child was found and mental ability tests are best described with a 3-level about emotions and use them to enhance
Where Does Intelligence Come From
Leibniz said: there is nothing in intellect that was not
first in the senses, except intellect (baby’s minds aren’t
clay; they’re already-made vessels from evolution that
can be further filled with experience).
This shows that people have a general ability (called Galton made research on relatives and found that
intelligence is genetic. That may be false because when
intelligence) which is divided into small sets of middle-
level groups, which in turn are made up of several studying siblings, they may also have the same
specific abilities unique to specific tasks. environment. To make it a fact, we’d need to study IQ
of relatives that don’t share the same environment,
Although it is easy to determine the specific and general adopted children that share environment and people
factors, it is difficult to identify the middle ones. There that share both.
are 2 approaches:
1. Data-based approach: Compute correlations Normal siblings and fraternal twins (2 eggs, 2 sperms)
share 50% but identical twins (split egg and sperm)
between performances of large groups of
people, Carroll found that patterns of share 100% of genes. Identicals have stronger
correlation on IQ tests, even when raised apart (still
correlations among tests suggest the existence
of 8 middles: memory and learning, visual better than fraternal twins raised together). Fraternal
and regular siblings are only modestly correlated,
perception, auditory perception, retrieval suggesting that genes play an important part.
ability, cognitive speediness, processing speed,
crystallized intelligence (retain and use 2
Heritability Coefficient (h ): statistic that describes the
knowledge acquired through experience) and proportion of the difference between people’s scores
fluid intelligence (to see abstract relations and
that can be explained by differences in their genes. If it
draw logical inferences). is 0.5, it means that intelligence differs among people
2. Theory-based approach: this is better than 50%. You can’t apply it to one person because people
above because above is blind to some things are a product of experience and genetics, not due to
like creativity. Sternberg believes there are 3 one or the other. It depends on age and is usually larger
intelligence types: Analytic (to identify and
in adults (adults are more different, probably because
define problems and find strategies to solve of experience). The smaller it is, the less the
them), Creative (generate solutions others
3. environment plays a role, the more genetics do (lower
haven’t), Practical Intelligence (apply or difference).
implement solutions in everyday settings).
Shared Environment: environmental factors that are
Gardner studied people with brain damage,
prodigies (normal intelligence but extraordinary experienced by all relevant members of household vs.
talent) and savants (people with low non-shared environment: environmental factors that
intelligence and extraordinary talent) and found are not experienced by all relevant members of a
8 kinds of intelligence: Linguistic, logic-math, household (those are the ones that matter)
spatial, musical, bodily, interpersonal, Relative Intelligence: generally stable (people,
intrapersonal and naturalistic. He said that IQ
measures only the first three because that is compared to others, will stay at the same level). An
individual’s absolute intelligence changes (Binet). Flynn
what westerners value. Mayer and Salovey
define emotional intelligence (ability to reason Effect: average intelligence rises by .3% every year
(although intelligence of an individual decreases after 18, they are still smarter than past generations). Ampakamines (improve short-term memory
Reasons: better nutrition and schooling, dull ones are and planning abilities): modafinil.
not chosen as mates, or our life now is an IQ test (and
Other than drugs, scientists are experimenting on rats
practice makes perfect).
by altering hippocampal development at birth, creating
Genes determine range, environment determines a strand of smart mice.
Economics play an important role in determining IQ.
High SES provides better nutrition and medical care and Developmental Psychology: study of continuity and
away from air pollution (so provides healthy brain change across the life span (metamorphosis).
structure). They are also more likely to be breastfed
(better). Culturally, high SES children are raised in Prenatality
Prenatal stage: conception to birth. It begins 12 hours
intellectually stimulating environments. Also, high SES
parents talk to their children differently, providing a after millions of sperm race towards egg and one wins.
Zygote: fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from
greater range of words. both sperm and egg. Every zygote begins as a female. Of
Education is also a strong enhancer of IQ, but its effects the 23 chromosomes an egg has, the 23 is always an X.
are small, narrow and short-lived. This may be because So, the sex of the zygote depends on whether the
our education systems are not good enough. successful sperm carries an X or Y chromosome.
1. Germinal Stage: 2-week period begins at
Being the firstborn doesn’t matter, but being raised first
conception where the one-celled zygote
matters because you would have had the parents for undergoes mitosis. Very rare for a zygote to
yourself longer, so more intellectual communication. complete the journey from the fallopian tube to
the uterus (females have a better chance).
Are Some Groups More Intelligent? 2. Embryonic Stage: 2 week until 8 week.th
Terman improved on Binet’s test (making it Stanford-
Zygote continues to divide and differentiation
Binet Test) and found that whites perform better than occurs. Zygote is now known as an embryo.
blacks, and suggested segregating them. Group
differences are a fact. Testosterone also begins developing in the male
embryos at this stage.
3. Fetal Stage: 9 week until birth. Embryo is now
Situations in which IQ tests are administered affect
scores. Although only minimally, the cultural context of a fetus with a skeleton and muscles. Although
the brain is complete by the 6 month (only
a test affects the scores.
25% of an adult brain occurs inside),
Scientists don’t know for sure if genes affect IQ. Blacks myelination (formation of fatty sheath around
have a mixture of European genes, but those who have
axon of neuron) begins, but doesn’t end in
more/less European genes perform similarly, so the womb.
genes aren’t affecting them. Scientists have found that The baby brain is only 25% because:
some genes slightly affect intellect, but they are same Human brain size tripled in the past 2 million
across groups, so, so far, it is unknown. years, and a brain with that size requires a
bigger head which would not pass through the
Improving Intelligence uterus.
Because education is expensive, scientists are making
Since we are adaptive species, it is better for
drugs to enhance academic ability. the brain to develop based on the environment
Cognitive Enhancers (drugs that improve it’s born to than to have pre-obtained
psychological processes that underlie intelligent structures that may or may not be relevant
behaviour): Ritalin and Adderall. anymore. We are affected by genes and environment in the because they may be wrong, accommodation
womb. Placenta: organ that physically links bloodstream occurs (infants revise their schemas in light of
to developing embryo/fetus. So, what the mother eats new information). Piaget thinks Infants don’t
affects the child’s environment and the child physically have the idea of object permanence (objects
and psychologically. Teratogens (means monster- continue to exist even when we can’t see them)
maker): agents that damage the process of but research suggests otherwise.
development, most common is alcohol. Fetal Alcohol 2. Preoperational (2 – 6): child learns about
Syndrome: developmental disorder that stems from physical/concrete objects. Mistakes explained:
heavy alcohol use by mother during pregnancy. It a. Centration: tendency to focus on only
causes facial, brain and cognitive abnormalities. one property of object and exclude rest
Tobacco is another teratogen that causes babies to be b. Don’t know reversibility: don’t think
born lighter and with perceptual and attentional about the fact that what made the egg
problems. 11) line longer can be reversed.
The fetus is aware of external sounds like the mother’s – c. They don’t know they have minds that
heartbeat, voice and digestive system. Children whose make mental representations
mothers had read to them during pregnancy develop a 3. Concrete Operational (6 – 11): child learns how
sense of familiarity later. various operations affect objects. Different from
preoperational because they understand. Their
mistakes may be quantity. They have
Infancy and Childhood
Infancy: Stage of development that begins at birth and conservation (they know quantitative
properties are invariant despite object’s
lasts 12-24 months.
Newborns can only see things in a short distance. appearance)
Newborns can detect social stimuli and can mimic facial 4. Formal operational (11 – adulthood): can now
expressions as well. solve nonphysical problems easily. They can
Motor Development: emergence of ability to execute operate on abstract objects.
Egocentricism: failure to understand that the world
physical actions such as rehearsing, grasping, crawling…
Since infants are born with a small set of reflexes appears differently to different observers. This causes
little children to believe what they see is what
(specific patterns of motor response that are triggered
by specigic patterns of sensory stimulation), these tend everybody else sees. Also, children think that them at
to disappear to make room for sophisticated ones, different times are different people too. They
understand people have different desires, but don’t
obeying two rules of behaviour:
1. Cephalocaudal Rule (top-bottom rule): believe they have different emotions than themselves.
Children then acquire theory of mind (idea that human
describes tendency for motor skills to emerge in
sequence from head to feet. behaviour is guided by mental representations) when
2. Proxismodistal Rule (inside-outside rule): they mature. Exceptions:
Autism: people with difficulties in
describes tendency for motor skills to emerge in
sequence from center to periphery. communicating and making friends, possibly
because they fail to acquire theory of mind.
Also, all infants learn these skills in different way. Those
who had something to grasp developed skills faster Deaf children whose parents don’t know sign
language. They’re slow to communicate
because they don’t have access to it, which
Piaget developed cognitive development (emergence
of ability to think and understand). Stages: slows development of their understanding
minds. Learning language would help them.
1. Sensorimotor: (birth – 2) begin to sense and
move, and create schemas (theories about the When to acquire theory of mind is affected by number
way the world works). Then, assimilation may of siblings, frequency in engaging in pretend play, SES,
occur (apply schemas in novel situations), and imaginary friends, and importantly language (especially Babies create internal working model of relationships
about thoughts and feelings) (set of beliefs about self, primary caregiver and
Criticisms of Piaget: He believed that children graduate relationship between them). Attachment styles
from one stage and move on to the next, but studies determine what type of model the child thinks of. A
show that sometimes they may be in both at the same mother’s responsiveness and sensitivity cause infant’s
time. Also, most children acquire the abilities he attachment style.
described earlier than he predicted. Children are born with different temperaments
(characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity).
Vygotsky believed children are like scientists who learn
from their community. Mostly, they learn from Piaget noticed child’s moral system changed in 3 steps:
language (Asian counting system vs. English). There are 1. Morality shifted from realism to relativism
3 skills they acquire earlier that help in their ability to 2. Morality shifted from prescriptions to principles
learn from others: 3. Morality shifted from outcomes to intentions.
1. Joint attention: Ability to focus on what another Kohlberg detailed Piaget’s theories and found 3 stages:
person is focused on. Preconventional: moral development in which
2. Social Referencing: ability to use another morality of an action is primarily determined by
person’s reaction as information about the its consequences for the agent (most kids)
world. Conventional: moral development in which
3. Imitation: Ability to do what another person morality of an action is determined by the
meant to do (they won’t imitate mistakes they
extent to which it conforms to social rules
notice, only the action). (adolescents)
Postconventional: moral development at which
Infants require more from caregivers than sustenance. the morality of an action is determined by a set
Bowlby studied this and explained that babies try to of general rules that reflect core values (adults)
keep their caregivers near them by gurgling, crying…
Research suggests that Kohlberg’s rules exist, but not
During the first 6 months, they keep a tally of who concretely (people may use the one that fits their
responds most often and the best responder is “primary circumstances). Not stages, but skills. Many critiques
caregiver” (emotional center of child and they try to believe that moral thinking does not affect moral
remain near him/her). This is because human babies are behavior.
predisposed to form attachment (emotional bond).
Children deprived from attachment develop mental and Moral judgements seem to be consequences and not
emotional disorders. causes of emotional reactions (moral intuitionist)
Ainsworth developed strange situation (behavioural
test to determine a child’s attachment style) which Our brain’s respond to other people’s expressions of
involves bringing a child with caregiver and staging a distress by creating within us the experience of distress
few situations. Attachment styles: (mirror neurons) and allow sympathy.
Secure: If child was distressed, they calm down
at caregiver’s presence, if not distressed they
Adolescence: Minding the Gap
acknowledge her presence (60%) Adolescence: period of development that begins with
Avoidant: child is not distressed and does not
onset of sexual maturity and lasts until beginning of
acknowledge presence (20%) adulthood. Puberty: bodily changes associated with
Ambivalent: child is distressed but tries to sexual maturity (marked by growth spurt). These
squirm away when caregiver approaches (15%)
changes involve primary sex characteristics (bodily
Disorganized: no consistent patterns (5%) structures involved in reproduction) and secondary (not
These types vary across culture, and may change within
directly related to reproduction: facial, pubic hair,
a child as they grow. breasts….). In brain, different tissues connect differently (parietal and temporal lobe stop connecting). Also,
infants produce a lot of synapses in prefrontal cortex
(synaptic proliferation) but in adolescence, these get
pruned and reduced which shows that our brain’s
wiring is because of environment and it’s pruning is
because of environment.
The early onset of puberty has cause psychological
stages to individuals because instead of reaching
puberty at the same time they can accept adult roles,
now there is a gap, so the period between adulthood
and childhood (adolescence) protracted.
Psychologists theorize that adolescence is a place of
internal turmoil because these people were denied a
place in society, so they try to rebel against adults. But
this is preventable, and some cultures have teens that
try to learn from adults than rebelling against them.
Adolescents only like to experiment, but these never
have long-term consequences.
Research suggests that the timing, not actual puberty,
has more of an effect. Boys who reach puberty late are
not ‘manly’ and girls who reach puberty early are
isolated. In addition to that, many teens find themselves
attracted to members of the same sex. There is no
psychological evidence to suggest that parenting affects
As adolescents pull away from parents, they form their
sexuality, or that early endeavours determine later sex. own cliques with others of their gender. Female and
This, however, may be related to genes (people with
male cliques then meet in public places. Couples may
gay siblings have higher chance of being gay). It may be then begin to ‘peel off’ and go their own way. Teens
because as a fetus, high levels of androgen will
determine sexuality (making whatever the fetus is usually begin to act like their peers, not because of
pressure, but because they admire each other.
prefer women), but this isn’t the only factor because
identical twins with a different orientation. Women’s Adulthood: stage of development that begins at 18-21
sexuality is more plastic than men’s (oriented and years and ends at death. Here, physical changes slow
reoriented), but no evidence of success of ‘conversion down. The 20s is where we’re at our best physical state,
therapy’. Either way, sexual orientation seems to be not as well as best cognitive state. By 30, body begins to
a matter of choice, but sexual behaviour is. America has deteriorate at a fast rate. With the brain, prefrontal
highest rate of teen pregnancy and abortion, only cortex and subcortical connections deteriorate first.
because they have weak sex education. Memory also declines, but different forms at different
Erik Erikson believes major task of adolescence is to rates. However, older adults are somewhat
develop an adult identity, and it shifts from family to compensated for this with using their brain more
peer relations. This may be difficult because: skillfully. When young adults use their brain, there is
1. Children cannot choose parents but can choose bilateral asymmetry (left is better than right or vice
peers, giving them power to shape themselves. versa), but in older ones don’t have that which means,
2. As adolescents strive for more autonomy, their they use both parts to compensate for one weak side.
parents may rebel, and their relation may be
conflictive and they would be pushed apart. Socio-emotional Selectivity Theory: young adults orient o Rorschach Inkblot Test: Projective personality
toward acquisition of information that will be useful to test in which individual interpretations of the
them in future, while older ones orient toward meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are
information that brings emotional satisfaction. This is analyzed to identify respondent’s inner feelings
because the young can invest their time for their and interpret his or her personality structure
futures, but the older have shorter futures so they o Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): projective
spend time wisely by remembering positive things. Old test in which respondents reveal underlying
people don’t attend to information that doesn’t make motives, concerns, and the way they see social
them happy. world through stories they make up about
ambiguous pictures of people.
Marriage and parenthood are one of the best things of a
person’s life. Some researchers suggest people become
happy because of marriage, other researchers believe Trait Approach
Trait theorists attempt to create meaningful sets of
people got married because they are happy. Children,
however, cause happiness in couples to plummet. descriptors, but face challenges: narrow down an
Women tend to become sadder more. Thinking about infinite set of adjectives, and answering why people
have particular traits (Nature vs. Nurture)
children is a delight, but not raising them.
Allport believed people could be described in terms of
Chapter 12 traits (relatively stable disposition to behave in a
particular and consistent way). Allport saw a trait as a
Personality cause (predisposition) but Murray saw it as a motive
Personality: an individual’s characteristic style of (TAT founder)
behaving, thinking, feeling To identify core traits, factor analysis was used (sorts
General explanations of personality differences are traits into small number of underlying dimensions –
based on prior events and anticipated events. factors – based on how people use traits to describe
Ways to obtain objective data without distractions: themselves)
Personality Inventories (Self-Report): series of Big Five: traits of the five-factor model:
answers to a questionnaire that asks people to
conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism,
indicate the extent to which sets of statements openness to experience, extraversion (CANOE). It is
accurately describe their own behaviour/mental preferred over Cattel’s 16 and Eysenck’s 3 because it
state. One specific type includes Minnesota has most variation without overlap, constantly emerge
Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2): well- in experiments, and shows up in all different types of
researched clinical questionnaire used to assess people (universal).
personality and psychological problems (actuarial People believe personality stabilizes because brain and
method compares one sample to another). MMPI-2 biological processes stabilize. Biological mechanisms
helps may have: play a great role in determining personality (as seen
o Validity scales: assess a person’s attitude through twin and cross-species studies).
towards taking the test and tendencies to try to Eysenck believes the difference between intro and
distort results by faking extroverts is introverts have more sensitive reticular
o Response Style: have to provide accurate formation (part of brain responsible for
answers, even if it’s a sensitive topic
arousal/alertness). Gray believes of 2 systems:
Projective Techniques: standard series of ambiguous Behavioural activation system (BAS): ‘go’ system that
stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that activates approach behaviour in response to
reveal inner aspects of an individual’s personality anticipation of reward (high in extroverts)
(bad thing: it’s subject to experimenter’s bias – not Behavioural inhibition system (BIS): ‘stop’ system
valid or reliable)
that inhibits behavioural response to stimuli
signalling punishment (high in negative people) Psychodynamic approach Displacement: involves shifting unacceptable wishes
Freud’s Psychodynamic Approach: personality is or drives to a neutral/less threatening alternative
formed by needs, strivings, and desires largely operating (yell at friend when angry at boss).
outside of awareness – motives that can produce Identification: helps deal with feelings of threat or
emotional disorders. Dynamic Unconscious: active anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on
system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, characteristics of another person who seems more
the person’s deepest instincts and desires, and the powerful/better able to cope (an abused becomes
person’s inner struggle to control these forces. an abuser)
Freud believed mind had 3 parts: Sublimation: involves channeling unacceptable
ID: part of the mind containing drives present at sexual/aggressive drives into socially acceptable and
birth; it is the source of our bodily needs, wants, culturally enhancing activities (football calms anger).
desires, and impulses, particularly the sexual and Freud also made psychosexual stages: distinct early life
aggressive drives. It operates based on pleasure stages through which personality is formed as children
principle (seek immediate gratification) experience sexual pleasures from specific body areas
Ego: component of personalirt, developed through and caregivers redirect/interfere with those pleasures.
Fixation: person’s pleasure-seeking drives become stuck
contact with external world, that enables is to deal
with life’s practical demands. It operates on reality or arrested at that psychosexual stage.
principle (function effectively and hinder Stage Oral Anal Phallic Latent Genital
gratification if necessary). 0-18
Age 2-3 years 3-5 years 5-13 years Adult
Superego: mental system that reflect the months
internalization of cultural rules, mainly learned Erotogenic Mouth Anus/ Penis/ - Penis/
zone urethra clitoris vagina
as parents exercise authority. It acts as a Conflict Feeding/ Masturbate Adult
conscience. with weaning Toileting (Oedipus) - responsible
According to Freud, these 3 are governed by Talkative, Orderly,
anxiety. Ego first tries to repress (motivated Personality dependent, controlling, Flirty, vain, Authentic,
features addictive, disorganize, jealous, - capacity for
forgetting and decreased activation of needy