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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Social Psychology.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 13 Social Psychology - Sociail psycology: is the study of the cause and sonsequences of sociality Social Behaviour - Our social behaviour revolves aroung two basic goals- survival and reproduction - surivival o Aggression: is the behaviour whose purpose is to harm another  Frustration-aggression hypothesis: whichs that animals agress when and only when their goals are fustracted (negative affect causes aggression)  If animals aggress when they feel bad then anything that makes them feel bad should increase aggression  Both biology and culture play a role in determing if and when people will aggress  Biology and agression o Gender (testosterone)- women are mich less likely then men to aggress withobt provocation ot yo aggress in ways that cause physical injury but onlu slightly less liekly then men to aggress when provoked or to aggress in a way that causes psychological injury when are more likelu than men to aggress bu causing social harm  Culture and aggression o Vairiation over time and geography shops that culture can play an important role in the determining whether our innate capacity for aggression whill result in aggressive behavior o Cooperation: behaviour by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit  Cooperation is ricky  The prisoner dilmma  Minize the risk – learn to spot a cheater, react strongly when you detect a cheater  Group: a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them for others  Prejudice: is a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership  Discrimination: is a positive or negative behaviour towards another person based on their group membership  Deindividuation: immersion in a proup cause people to become less concerned with their personal values (being assmebled in a group draw our attention to other and away from ourselves)  Diffusion og responsibility: individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounf by other who are acting the same way  Altruism: behaviour that benefits another without benefiting ones self  Kin selction: process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with theier relatives (cooperation with relatives is not really alruistic)  Reciprocal altruism: behaviour that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the fiture - Reproduction o Women tend to be more selective then men becaue sex is potentialluu more costly for women then for men o Attraction  Situational factors  Mere exposer effect: tendency for the frequency of exposer to a stimulus to incease liing  Physical factors  Men are more likely thean women to acknowledge the fact of attractiveness  Body shape o Males- inverted triangle o Females- hourglass  Symmetry- bilaterally symmetical( left side is a mirror of the right) o Average features are considered more beautiful  Age o Women- immature features o Male- matur
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