Textbook Notes (362,764)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYA02H3 (931)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders - hard to define and explain - thought feeling and emotion must be persistent harmful to the person experiencing them and uncontrollable Identifying psychological disorders: what is abnormal? - relative recent - use to be seen as possession by animal spirots or demons - medical model: the conceptualization of psychological discorder as disease that, like physical disease have biological cause defined symptoms and possible cure o first step is to determ the nature of the problem throguht diagnosis. clinicians seek to determine the nature of the patients mental disease by assessing symptoms ( behaviours, thoughts and emotions suggestive of an underlying abnormal syndrome a coherent cluster of symptoms usually due to a single cause) - DSM-IV-TR is a classifaction system that describe the feature used to diagnose each recognized mental discorder and indicated how the discorder can be distingiushed for other similar problems - Comorbidity: the co-occurrence of two or more mental discorders ina single individual - Most discorders have both internal and external causes - Adiathesis-stress model: person may be predisposed for a psychological discorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress Anxiety Disorders: When fears take over - anxiety discorder: the class of mental discorder in whin anxiety is the predominant feature - generalized anxiety discorder o GAD are unrelenting worries are not focused on any particular threat o GAD: Chronic excessice worry is accompanied by three or more of the following symptomsRestlessness fatigue concentration problems irritability muscle tension and sleep disturbance o More freq among lower classes o Twice as coomon in women o Neurotransitter imbalance may play a role in the discorder - phobic discorders o phobic discorders: marked, persistent and excessive fear and aviodance of specific objects activies or situations o specific phobiaL irrational fear of a particual object or situation that markedly interferes with an individuals ability to function  animals, natural environments situations, blood(injections and injury) others  mor common among women then mean o social phobia:irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed o preparedness theory: people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fear - panic discorder o panic discorder: sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror o agoraphobia: specific phobia involving a fear of venturing into public places o more likely in women - obsessive-compulsive disorder o obsessive compulsive disorder: repetitive intrusive thoughtd snd rituslistic behaviours designd to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individuals functioning o higher in women Mood Disorders: At the mercy of Emotions - mood discorders: mental discorders that have mood diturbance as their predomiant features (depression and bipolar discorder) - depressive discorders o major depressive discorder (unipolar depression): severely depressed modd that last
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