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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 development.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 11: Development  Adi, loved art, collection go art owned by the US government o He is Adolf Hitler, what if he became an artist, would WW2 have happened?  From birth to infancy from childhood to adolescence from young adulthood to old age, one of the most obvious facts about humans we change over time  Includes dramatic transformations and striking consistencies in the way we look think feel and act  Developmental psychology: study of the continuity and change across the life span  Develop. Psychologists have discovered some amazing things Prenatality: A womb with a view  Prenatal stage ends with birth, begins 9 months earlier about 200 million sperm begin journey to women’s vagina, through uterus and to fallopian tubes  Those that manage to make their way through the uterus, a mere 200 find correct tube and get close enough to egg to release digestive enzymes that erode the egg’s protective layer  One sperm sheds its tail and fertilizes the egg and in 12 hours, nuclei of the sperm and the egg merge and prenatal development of a unique human being begins Prenatal development  Zygote: a fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg  One thing in common with the person is the gender  Each human sperm cell and egg contain 23 chromosomes that contain genes, blueprint for all biological development  One of the chromosomes can come in 2 variations: X & Y; if sperm carries Y that zygote is male and if X it is female  Germinal stage: the 2 week period of prenatal development that begins at conception; one celled zygote begins to divide into 2 cells and by time of birth zygote has divided into trillions of cells each of which one set of 23 chromosomes from sperm and one set from egg  Zygote migrates to fallopian and implants itself in part of uterus  Then embryonic stage: a period that lasts from the second week until about the eighth week, zygote is known as embryo and is inch long but already has a beating heart and other body parts like arms and legs  Embryos have one X and one Y begin producing testosterone hormone, masculinizes their reproductive organs and embryos with 2 x’s don’t which is female  Fetal stage: the period of prenatal development that lasts from the ninth week until birth, embryo is known as fetus and has skeleton and muscles for movement  During last 3 months size increases, develops insulating layer of skin digestive and respiratory systems  Cells that become the brain divide quickly around 3 or 4 weeks after contraception, complete by 6 months  Fetal stage brain cells begin to generate axons and dendrites, also go through myelination: the formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron, insulates brain cell and prevents leakage of neural signals that travel along axon  Myelination of cortex continues into adulthood  Newborn human’s brain is only 25% of its adult size and 75% brain development occurs outside of womb  2 reasons: first human brain is nearly tripled in size in just 2 million years of evolution, bigger brains require bigger heads, cannot go through birth canal  one of our species greatest talents ability to adapt to wide range of novel environments that differ rather than arriving in world with fully developed brain and may or may not meet requirements of its environments  our underdeveloped brains are specifically shaped by the unique social and physical environment into which we are born allows us to be exceptionally adaptable Prenatal environment  natural to assume that genes influence development from the moment of conception and that environment influences development from the moment of birth  the womb is an environment that influences development in multitude ways; ex: placenta organ physically links bloodstreams of the mother and the developing embryo or fetus and allows exchange of materials  that is why insufficient nutrition during pregnancy tend to have physical and psychological problems [notably increase risk of schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder]  Teratogens: agents that damage the process of development such as drugs and viruses, literally means monster makers: include lead in water, paint dust in air and mercury in fish and alcohol  fetal alcohol syndrome: a developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy  FAS children have distinctive features, brain abnormalities and cognitive deficits o Studies suggest light drinking doesn’t harm the fetus  Tobacco another one, they have lower birth weights and likely to have perceptual and attention problems in childhood  Embryo more vulnerable to teratogens than the fetus  Prenatal environment rich in chemicals and information, human brain operating even as it is built and sense stimulation and learn from it  Fetus can hear mother’s heartbeat, gastrointestinal and her voice  Newborn even cry in the melody of mother’s native language  Summary 427 Infancy and childhood: becoming a person  Infancy: the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18-24 months Perceptual and Motor Development  Newborns have limited range of vision  Habituation tendency to respond less intensely to a stimulus as frequency of exposure to that stimulus increases and babies do that like us  More attentive to social stimuli  Know how to mimic facial expressions even in first hour of life  Motor development: the emergence of the ability to execute physical actions such as reaching, grasping, crawling and walking  Infants are born with small set of reflexes: specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation  Rooting reflex: tendency for infants to move their mouths towards any object that touches their cheek  Sucking reflex: tendency to suck any object that enters mouth  2 reflexes allow them to find mother’s nipple and feed; vitally important; hardwired  these seem to disappear in first few months as children learn sophisticated motor behavior  the development of more sophisticated behaviors tend to obey 2 general rules  1 : cephalocaudal rue [TOP TO BOTTOM]: describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to feet o infants tend to gain control over heads then arms trunks and then legs last nd  2 rule: proximodistal rule: [INSIDE TO OUTSIDE] tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery o babies learn to control their trunks before their elbows and knees and then hands and feet  motor skills emerge in orderly sequence but not strict timetable  different infants seem to acquire the same skill in different ways; reaching Cognitive Development  first half of 20 century; biologist Jean piaget; interest in infants thoughts  children of same age made the same mistakes, as they aged they stopped making these mistakes at precisely same time  he thought they had discrete stages of cognitive development: emergence of the ability to think and understand Discovering the World  Piaget suggested that cognitive development occurs in 4 stages o Sensorimotor stage; a stage of development that begins at birth and last though infancy, infants use their ability to sense and to move to acquire information about world; with senses they construct schemas; theories about/or models of the way the world works o Preoperational stage: o Concrete operational o Formal operational  Key advantage in a theory is to predict and control what will happen  Assimilation: infants apply their schemas in novel situation;  Infants theories about the world are usually disconfirmed, must occasionally adjust to schemas in light of new experiences  Which is called accommodation: infants revise their schemas in light of new info  Infants don’t have a theory of “object permanence”: idea that objects continue to exist even when they aren’t visible  Some understanding of object at 4 months Discovering the mind  The long period following infancy is called childhood: stage of development that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until adolescence [11-14 years]  Childhood has 2 stages: o Preoperational stage: stage of development that begins at about 2 years and ends at 6 years o Child learns about physical and concrete objects o Second stage is concrete operational: stage that begins at 6 years and ends at 11, when child learns how various actions or operations can affect or transform those objects  Difference between the 2: concrete operational children understood quantity is a property of a set of concrete objects that doesn’t change when operation such as spreading out alters the set appearance  Childs insight called conservation: the notion that quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in object’s appearance  Preoperational children don’t grasp the notion of conservation o Children fail to think about reversibility and they have centration o They don’t fully grasp the fact that they have minds and that these minds contain mental representations of world o Distinction b/w the way things are and the way we see them is not made  Concrete operational: can begin to understand that some operations change what an object looks like without changing what the object is like  Can solve physical problems  Formal operational stage: stage of development that begins around age 11 and lasts through adulthood o Are able to reason systematically about abstract concepts such as liberty and love and about events that will happen, might have happened and never happened o Ability to generate consider, reason about, otherwise operate on abstract objects is hallmark of formal operations Discovering our minds o Preoperational children don’t grasp that other people have minds that may mentally represent same objects different ways o Egocentrism: the failure to understand that world appears differently to different observers Perceptions and beliefs  False belief test; most pass it at ages 4-6  Egocentrism colors children’s understanding of others and themselves  When only child understands the concept of mental representation she can understand that different people have different beliefs including herself  Desires and emotions o Young children seem to understand that other people have different desires  Contrast: children take a long time to understand that other people may have emotional reactions unlike their own  At age 6 that children come to understand that because they and others have different knowledge they and others may also experience different emotions in the same situations Theory of mind  Vast majority of children come to understand that they and others have minds and that these minds represent the world in different ways  They are said to have acquired a theory of mind: idea that human behavior is guided by mental rep.  2 groups lag behind their peers:  autism; rare disorder 1 in 2500 children, have difficulty communicating with other people and making friends, fail to acquire theory of mind, specifically that other people can have false beliefs  deaf children is the second group: whose parents don’t know sign language o just as learning a spoken language seems to help hearing children acquire theory of mind so does learning a sign language help deaf children do same  age at which children acquire theory of mind appears to be influenced by variety of factors but of all factors language seems to be the most important  children language skills are excellent predictors of how they perform on false belief test Piaget remixed  cognitive journey from sensorimotor to formal is complex  many ideas were help quite well  first piaget thought children graduated from one stage to another in same way as grade and particular moment in transition to which everyone can point o modern psych’s see it as more continuous and less step like  second qualification children acquire many of the abilities describes much earlier o psychologist proved that 4 month old display sense of object permanence  every year it seems that research lowers the age which babies can demonstrate their ability to perform cognitive tasks Discovering Our cultures  according to Russian psychologist children do the same thing inheriting the theories and methods  he believed that cognitive development was largely the result of the child’s interaction with members of his culture rather than interaction with concrete objects, noted that cultural tools such as language and counting systems have strong influence development  human beings and their ability to learn from to her depends on 3 fundamental skills that they acquire early on o ability to focus on what another person is focused on is known as joint attention o the ability to use another person’s reactions as info about the world is known as social referencing o infant performs intended action and the ability to do what another person does or what person meant to do is known as imitation  joint attention and social and imitation 3 basic skills that allow infants to learn more sophisticated skills from other me
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