Chapter 10 – Reading Notes
Intelligence: The ability to direct one’s thinking, adapt to one’s circumstances, and learn from
Intelligence tests measure responses that are known to be correlated with consequential
behaviours that are thought to be made possible by intelligence.
German psychologist William Stern (1914) suggested that the best way to determine whether a
child was developing normally was to examine the ratio of the child’s mental age to the child’s
American psychologist Lewis Terman (1916) formalized this comparison with the intelligence
quotient (ratio IQ).
Ratio IQ: A statistic obtained by dividing a person’s mental age by the person’s physical age and
then multiplying the quotient by 100.
Deviation IQ: A statistic obtained by diving a person’s test score by the average test score of
people in the same age group and then multiplying the quotient by 100.
Binet and Simon are the first people to make an intelligence test.
IQ matters because they are able to predict a person’s academic performance, job performance,
health, wealth, attitudes and even basic cognitive abilities.
Charles Spearman, a student of Wilhelm Wundt invented a technique known as factor analysis.
Factor analysis: A statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a
small number of underlying factors.
Two-factor theory of intelligence: Every task requires a combination of a general ability (g) and
skills that are specific to the task (s).
Louis Thurstone (1938) noticed that while scores on most tests were positively correlated,
scores on one kind of verbal test were more highly correlated with scores on another kind of
verbal test than they were with scores on perceptual tests.
Primary verbal abilities: Perceptual ability, verbal ability and numerical ability.
There are 8 independent middle-level abilities:
o Memory and learning
o Visual perception
o Auditory perception
o Retrieval ability
o Cognitive speediness
o Processing speed
o Crystallized intelligence
o Fluid intelligence Fluid Intelligence: The ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences.
Crystallized intelligence: The ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through
Psychologist Robert Sternberg believes that there are three kinds of intelligence:
o Analytic intelligence = Ability to identify and define problems and to find strategies for