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Chapter 15

PSYA02 Notes - Chap 15_17-18.pdf

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Steve Joordens

PLEASE DO NOT COPYCHAPTER 15 Social PsychologyHumans are social beings our behaviors can affect our actions and our actions can affect our behaviorsSocial psychology the branch of psychology that studies our social naturehow the actual imagined or implied presence of others influences our thoughts feelings and behaviors Social CognitionTo understand social behavior we must pay attention to a persons physical and social environmentA social situation depends on many cognitive processesSocial cognition the processes involved in perceiving interpreting and acting on social informationhow people attend to perceive interpret respond to the social world Schemata and Social CognitionImpression formation the way in which we integrate information about anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person isAsch our impressions of others are formed by more complex rules than just a simple sum of characteristics that we use to describe people SchemaSchema a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a personplacethinga central theme of cognitive psychology which helps us interpret the worldEx the first you time you meet your profthe scheme you have of professor guided your interactions with himmaybe you see all these sports trophies and youre surprised because these things are inconsistent with your impression of professorsUnderstand a paragraph is easier when you know the title of the passage before it is readthis shows how schemata guide our interpretations Central Traitswitty smart warmwe have a positive sense of that person witty smart coldmuch less positive reactionCentral traits personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of other traitsimpart meaning to other known traits suggest the presence of other traits Experiment described a person using many characteristics Group 1 list included warmGroup 2 list included coldGroup 1 had more positive impressions than group 2 they also speculate that the person was generous happy When substituted warmpolite coldblunt there were no differences in impressionsso polite and blunt are called peripheral traitsFindings the negative influence of cold is stronger than the positive influence of the warmThis imbalance could be due to the fact that there is already a bias towards positivity in impressions of peopleA negative central trait may be more discrepant in this context since its filled with positive informationGender differences were also found foolish females were scored as more socially desirable than foolish males thNotes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed CarlsonHeth PLEASE DO NOT COPYThe Primacy EffectThey wanted to see if first impressions might overpower later impressionsExperiment presented list of adjectives either forward order or backwardsParticipants then had to describe the person who has these characteristics st The primacy effect was observed primacy effect the tendency to form impressions of people based on the 1 information we receive about them it is more pronounced for participants who are mentally fatiguedIn reality we arent usually presented with a list of characteristicsBut we still make up our own lists How Ans We observe what a person saysdoes and we think what those behaviors reveal about their personal qualities Suggestion people may generate traitlike labels from observing a persons behaviorThese labels automatically are associated in memoryEx a firefighter talks about his rescue and you generate the trait braveNext time you think about him you will recall the trait informationTrait labels from behavioral descriptions can become associated with almost any stimuluspeople associated personality traits with bananasEx youre eating a banana while talking to that firefighteryou may later associate the banana with the trait braveThis is not a spontaneous purposeful attempt to decipher what a personobject is like The SelfSelfconcept selfidentity ones knowledge feelings and ideas about oneselfhow you perceive yourself and interpret events that are relevant to defining who you areSelf a persons distinct individualitySelfschema a mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about oneself a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge feelings and ideas that constitute the selfconceptThe selfconcept can change with experienceSome say we should think of ourselves in terms of a working selfconcept that changes as we have new experiences or when we get feedback about our behaviorso there are many potential selves we might become depending on experiencePeople who just had a traumatic event they described similar current selves but described different future selvesrecoveredpredict happy selfconfident with friendsnot recoveredunhappy lonelyThis shows that thinking of ourselves in the present time doesnt accurately reflect how we will think of ourselves in the futurethe kind of person we will become Culture and Social PsychologyCrosscultural psychology a branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behaviorthere are many definitions to culture but traditionally a group of people living together with a common environment share same customs resemble each other geneticallyNorth American culture people of different ethnic religious etcFore people small homogeneous groupWith a broadly defined culture we can make subgroups of age political beliefs ethnicity etcNote culturecountry or continent The advantage of crosscultural research lets us test the generality of the results of a study that used participants of one culture thNotes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed CarlsonHeth PLEASE DO NOT COPY Similar study across culturesits a general principle that can be applied to all humansDifferent resultswe need to carry out further research because differences among cultures affect the variablesThe crosscultural approach has importance in politics and economics ex immigration issues Cultures differ biologically and ecologicallyBiological variables diet genetics endemic diseasesEcological variables geography climate religion educationBiological and ecological variables are what causes cultures behavioral differences Its hard to identify the cultural variables responsible for behavioral differencesIn crosscultural research culture is considered a treatment variableBut people are born into their cultures theres no random assignmentSo with crosscultural comparisons there are still the same limitations like for other correlational studies We think that culture and psychological processes are intertwined they affect each otherMany believe that basic psychological processes are universal but are informed by culture The formation of the selfconcept the perceptions one forms of others and the extent to which others may influence the development of ones selfconceptThere are two explanations of the self that reflect these cultural differences INDEPENDENT CONSTRUAL OF SELF Western INTERDEPENDENT CONSTRUAL OF SELF EasternEmphasize the uniqueness of the individual anEmphasize paying attention to others and the relatedness appreciation of being different from others selfreliance of the individual and others interconnectedness of peopleeat your veggies because others starveeat your veggies because of the farmerWe determine our own selfconceptOthers help develop our selfconceptWellbeing and satisfaction come from individualWellbeing and satisfaction come from interpersonal achievement and selfreflective emotions pride behaviors and socially engaged emotionsHigh selfconcept clarity you think your traits and abilitiesLow selfconcept clarity your traits and abilities are are hard to change malleablemore likely to persist after a successmore likely to persist after a failureAttributionThere are so many individual acts conducted by people around us and if we paid attention to all of them there would be too much to think aboutwe use schemata to lead us to the right conclusions thus saving time and effortAttribution the process by which people infer the causes of other peoples behavior Disposition vs SituationAttribution theorists the primary classification that we make about the causes of a persons behavior the relative importance of situational external and dispositional internal factorsExternal factors stimuli in the physical and social environment such as living conditions other people societal norms and lawInternal factors a persons traits needs and intentionsexternal and internal factors are things that can affect a persons thoughts feelings attitudes behaviors We learn through socialization what most people do in certain situations and then we develop schemata for how we expect people to act in those situations ex introductions we expect people to act in conventional ways like smile shake hand thNotes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed CarlsonHeth
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