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Chapter 10-14

PSYA02 Notes - Chap 10-14.pdf

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Steve Joordens

PLEASE DO NOT COPYCHAPTER 10 LanguageWeve long known that most species can communicate with one another but that doesnt mean they have language ex female moth releases pheromones to male when shes ready to matethey have languagePeople have taught primate species sign languagethey found that true verbal ability is a social behavior Language is important in our every day communicationremembering and thinking we encode info in memory verballywe extend our longterm memory for information by writing notes and then consulting them laterlanguage lets us think about complexabstract issues Psycholinguistics a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviorthey are concerned about human cognition rather than rules that come with languagethey see how children acquire language how verbal behavior develops and how children learn to speak from interactions with adultsthey see how adults use languagethey see how verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilities Speech and ComprehensionBeing able to engage in verbal behavior has been an advantage for our speciesWe can profit from other people even froma long time ago through reading and listeningWe can share results of our experiences through talking and writingWe can give information to change a behavior and we can request informationbehaviors Perception of SpeechSpeech doesnt come to us as a series of individual wordsThere are pauses stress and changes in pitch Recognition of Speech SoundsOur auditory system lets us recognize speech sounds there is a distinction between human vocalizations and other soundsWe can also recognize individuals from the sounds of their speechWe can filter out other noisesNot only does the auditory system recognize the sounds but the patterns underlying speech Using fMRI they found that analyzing information of speechmostly the left hemisphereThey found that some regions of the brain responded more to human vocalizations than natural soundstemporal lobe on the auditory cortexThen they studied how the brain reacted to natural speech or speech scrambled in frequency and the auditory area on the left hemisphere showed a greater contrastSo the left hemisphere plays a larger role in analyzing information of speechthNotes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed CarlsonHeth PLEASE DO NOT COPY Phoneme the minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language such as pthey are elements of speechex pinp i nMany experiments have been done to see how we distinguish between phonemes One distinction that we can detect is voiceonset time the delay between the initial sound of a consonant and the onset of vibration of the vocal cordsex vocal cords start to vibrate a little later when you say pa compared to when you say ba Phonemic discriminations occurs in both hemispheres but regions of the left auditory cortex specialize in recognizing the special aspects of speechUsing PET scans they played natural speech distortedunintelligible speech intelligible speech with distorted frequenciesSome areas responded to natural and unintelligible speechSome areas responded only to speech that was intelligible distorted or not When phonemes combine they make morphemesmorpheme the smallest unit of meaning in languageEx the word fastest two morphemes fast and istfast is a free morpheme because it can have its own meaning by itself ist is a bound morpheme because it must be attached to other morphemes to provide meaningMorphemic priming affects how well you perform on the Stroop test Recognition of Words in Continuous Speech The Importance of Learning and ContextThe N100 wave appears usually after you hear the onset of a wordThey examined brain wave activity when people listened to a continuous string of soundslike babupudutabaThere was no N100 response Then they assigned some of the sounds like the sequence dutaba to be a wordThey asked the people to study these nonsense words really carefullyThey listened to the continuous string of sounds againThe N100 response was there when people learned these nonsense words even though there were no auditory cuesThis shows that we can learn the units of speech We can also learn content and that is through contextEven with hesitations muffled sounds we still understand the content because of the contextContext affects the perception of words through topdown processing Cues in the environment also help us understand what someone is sayingex youre at snack bar and someone says I scream and you will think ice creamThere are also cues in written speech thNotes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed CarlsonHeth PLEASE DO NOT COPYUnderstanding the Meaning of Speech SyntaxAll languages have a syntax or grammar they all follow certain principles syntactical rulessyntactical rule a grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases clauses and sentencesOur understanding of syntax is automatic you can understand a sentence without knowing the terms like noun verb etcBut when we come across more difficult syntax our brains become more active Syntactical rules are learned implicitlyFirst we learn to speak and understand speech of othersThis can be done without knowing the rules and their applications ex construct diagrams of sentences which can come later From Chapter 8 there were 2 types of memories1 explicit memory can be described verbally 2 implicit memory cannot be described verballySyntax and word meaning involve different types of memories and so involve different brain mechanisms ex anterograde amnesia people cannot form explicit memoriesthey can still learn artificial grammar SYNTAXthey cannot learn the meanings of new wordsWORD MEANING There are 6 syntactical cues WORD ORDEREx The A Xs the Bagent is A object is B thing done is X Ex in sentences The boy hit the ball and The ball hit the boy word order tells us who does what to whom WORD CLASSWord class refers to grammatical categories like noun pronoun verb etcBut we dont need to know how to categorize words in order to recognize them and use them right FUNCTION AND CONTENT WORDSWords are either a function word or a content wordFunction word a preposition article or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structurea the to some and but when etcContent word a noun verb adjective or adverb that conveys meaningSo the content words give the meaning and the function words express the relations between content wordsA particular type of brain damage makes a person lose the ability to understand syntaxThat is because they can no longer understandknow how to use function words Affix a sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word prefix or to its end suffixwe add affixes to alter their grammatical functionex we add ed to indicate past tense ing lyThere was an experiment where they presented a string of words either with or without affixes thNotes by Mary Lee Notes from Psychology the Science of Behavior 4 Ed CarlsonHeth
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