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Chapter 15

PSYA02 Chapter 15.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological disorders TREATMENT: GETTING HELP TO THOSE WHO NEED IT - 1 in 5 people suffer from some sort of mental disorder - there are financial, personal and social costs to disorder Why People Cannot or Will Not Seek Treatment - most people who suffer from these problems can’t receive help or receive appropriate treatment - people fail to get treated due to three major problems: First, people may not realize that their disorder needs to be treated. People consider mental illness to be mind over matter or something that’s weakening the individual. Second, there could be barriers to treatment like beliefs and circumstances that keep people from getting help due to social barriers. Third, people who acknowledge they have problem may not know where to seek for services/help. Its hard to find the right psychologist Approaches to Treatment - treatments are divided into two kinds: first, psychotherapy, where a person interacts with a psychotherapist, and medical treatment or second is biological treatment. - for many psychotherapy was the main treatment for psychological disorders as there was few medical or biological options available PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES: HEALING THE MIND THROUGH INTERACTION - psychotherapy, is an interaction between a therapist and someone suffering from a psychological problem, with a goal of providing support or relief from the problem - there are 400 different systems of psychotherapies - 1/3 of the people use eclectic psychotherapy, which is a form of psychotherapy that involves drawing on techniques from different forms of therapy, depending on the clients and their problem Psychodynamic Therapy - Psychodynamic psychotherapies, explores childhood events and encourage individuals to use this understanding to develop insight into their psychological problems - psychoanalysis assumes that humans are born with aggressive and sexual urges which are repressed during childhood through the use of defense mechanism - the goal of psychoanalysis is to understand the conscious process which Frued called as the insight approach - the psychoanalyst can use several techniques like. First, free association, which is when client reports every through that goes through his/her mind, without filtration and the therapist looks at the common recurs. Second, is Dream analysis, which is when psychoanalysis treats dreams metaphors that symbolize unconscious conflict or wishes. Third, is the Interpretation, which is the process by which therapist deciphers(cracks) the meaning - Resistance is a reluctant to cooperate with the treatment due to the fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material - transference occurs when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client’s life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies - Carl Jung and Alfred Adler agreed with Freud in terms of insights but disagreed with him regarding insights usually involving sex and aggression - Carl Jung emphasized on collective unconscious which is the culturally determined sysmbols and myths that are shared among people, he argued could serve as a basis for interpretation beyond sex and aggression. - Alder believed that emotional conflicts are the result of perceptions of inferiority and that psychotherapy should help people overcome problems resulting from inferior social status, sex roles and discrimination - Interpersonal Psychotherapy(IPT), which is form of psychotherapy that focuses on helping clients improve current relationships. They pay attention t clients grief, and role transitions Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies - the idea of focusing treatment on the clients behavior rather than the clients conscious was inspired by behaviorism - Behavior therapy, assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing overt maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors - A behavior therapy sometimes also uses, token economy, which involves giving clients tokens for their desired behavior, which they trade later for rewards - a behavioral method developed by Joseph Wolpe, called Exposure Therapy, which involves confronting an emotion arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response - Wolpe called the treatment, systematic desensitization, which is a procedure in which a client relaxes all the muscles of his/her body while imagining being increasingly frightening situations. In other words if a person fears social situation, its better for the person to practice social interaction rather than imagining it. Also, easier situations are practiced first and as fear decreases, individuals face more difficult situations - Cognitive Therapy, focuses on helping the client identity and correct any distorted thinking about self, others and world. - cognitive therapy uses a main technique called, cognitive restructuring, which involves teaching clients to question the automatic beliefs, assumptions and predictions that often lead to negative impacts and replaces negative thinking with more realistic and positive beliefs - some cognitive therapy includes therapy techniques for coping with unwanted thoughts and feelings, techniques that resemble meditation. Mindfulness Meditation, teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment, and to be aware of his/her thoughts and to detect symptoms before they become problems. Mindfulness Medit
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